All-trans retinoic reduces the levels of cardiolipins in the NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cell-line affecting the autophagy and differentiation responses
ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic (ATRA) is used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia a rare form of AML characterized by the presence of a specific translocation involving chrosomes 15;17 and causing the production of the PML-RARα fusion protein in 95% of the cases. ATRA differentiates the APL blasts into neutrophilic granulocytes which are short lived cells. This effect is at the basis of the therapeutic effect of ATRA.
Project description:Cell proliferation and differentiation are highly coordinated processes. These two processes are disrupted during leukemogenesis, resulting in differentiation block and uncontrolled proliferation in leukemia. To understand the mechanisms disrupting the coordination between the two processes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), we investigated the regulatory mechanism of the negative cell cycle regulator CDKN2D by the promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) fusion protein and the role of CDKN2D in cell differentiation and proliferation. We found that CDKN2D expression in APL cells was significantly lower than that in normal promyelocytes. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays, we showed that PML/RARα directly bound to and inhibited the transactivation of the CDKN2D promoter. Further evidence by the truncated and mutated CDKN2D promoters revealed that the everted repeat 8 (ER8) motif on the promoter was the binding site of PML/RARα. Forced expression of CDKN2D induced G0/G1 phase arrest and partial granulocytic differentiation in APL-derived NB4 cells, suggesting the function of CDKN2D in regulating both cell proliferation and granulocytic differentiation. Furthermore, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) significantly induced CDKN2D expression in APL cells and knockdown of CDKN2D expression during ATRA treatment partially blocked the ATRA-induced differentiation and cell cycle arrest. Collectively, our data indicate that CDKN2D repression by PML/RARα disrupts both cell proliferation and differentiation in the pathogenesis of APL, and induced expression of CDKN2D by ATRA alleviates the disruption of both processes to ensure treatment efficiency. This study provides a mechanism for coupling proliferation and differentiation in leukemic cells through the action of CDKN2D.
Project description:Background:Chromosomal rearrangements in addition to t(15;17) have been reported in 25-40% of APL patients, with a large predominance of trisomy 8. Other abnormalities are far less frequent, particularly as ider(17), and the prognostic significance is still unclear. Case presentation:We present the case of a patient with t(15;17)(q22;q21), der(15)t(15;17) and ider(17)(q10)t(15;17)(q22;q21). In particular, the RT-PCR result for PML-RARA of this patient was a false negative and mutational analysis of AML-related genes showed SNP rs2454206 in the TET2 gene and yielded negative findings in other genes including AML1, ASXL1, CEBPA, DNMT3A, FLT3, KIT, NPM1, TP53, and U2AF1. After the early usage of arsenic trioxide combinated with ATRA and vigorous supportive treatment to maintain PLT ?30×109/L and FIB >1500 mg/L, this patient was under MMR and HCR without any clinical symptoms or signs until now. Conclusion:False negative reslults of RT-PCR analysis for PML-RARA are rare in APL and ider(17) is even more infrequent. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of APL with ider(17) and false negative RT-PCR analysis results. The role of ider(17) in APL is still an ongoing investigation and limited by the small number of published cases. The patient reported here benefited from vigorous supportive treatment during the combination of ATRA and arsenic trioxide in induction chemotherapy and the clinical outcome was favorable.
Project description:Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is epitomized by the chromosomal translocation t(15;17) and the resulting oncogenic fusion protein PML-RAR?. Although acting primarily as a transcriptional repressor, PML-RAR? can also exert functions of transcriptional co-activation. Here, we find that PML-RAR? stimulates transcription driven by HIF factors, which are critical regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxia and stem cell maintenance. Consistently, HIF-related gene signatures are upregulated in leukemic promyelocytes from APL patients compared to normal promyelocytes. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, we find that PML-RAR? exploits a number of HIF-1?-regulated pro-leukemogenic functions that include cell migration, bone marrow (BM) neo-angiogenesis and self-renewal of APL blasts. Furthermore, HIF-1? levels increase upon treatment of APL cells with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). As a consequence, inhibiting HIF-1? in APL mouse models delays leukemia progression and exquisitely synergizes with ATRA to eliminate leukemia-initiating cells (LICs).
Project description:Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a hematological disease characterized by a balanced reciprocal translocation that leads to the synthesis of the oncogenic fusion protein PML-RAR?. APL is mainly managed by a differentiation therapy based on the administration of all-<i>trans</i> retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). However, therapy resistance, differentiation syndrome, and relapses require the development of new low-toxicity therapies based on the induction of blasts differentiation. In keeping with this, we reasoned that a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms pivotal for ATRA-driven differentiation could definitely bolster the identification of new therapeutic strategies in APL patients. We thus performed an in-depth high-throughput transcriptional profile analysis and metabolic characterization of a well-established APL experimental model based on NB4 cells that represent an unevaluable tool to dissect the complex mechanism associated with ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation. Pathway-reconstruction analysis using genome-wide transcriptional data has allowed us to identify the activation/inhibition of several cancer signaling pathways (e.g., inflammation, immune cell response, DNA repair, and cell proliferation) and master regulators (e.g., transcription factors, epigenetic regulators, and ligand-dependent nuclear receptors). Furthermore, we provide evidence of the regulation of a considerable set of metabolic genes involved in cancer metabolic reprogramming. Consistently, we found that ATRA treatment of NB4 cells drives the activation of aerobic glycolysis pathway and the reduction of OXPHOS-dependent ATP production. Overall, this study represents an important resource in understanding the molecular "portfolio" pivotal for APL differentiation, which can be explored for developing new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been widely used in differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). ATRA binds to retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and triggers the formation of the transcription coactivator complex, which leads to changes in gene expression, APL cell-cycle arrest and differentiation, and clinical remission. The mechanisms responsible for ATRA's beneficial effects are still ill-defined. Here, we conducted a large-scale, unbiased short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen aiming to identify mediators of ATRA-induced differentiation and growth arrest of APL cells. Twenty-six proteins were identified. They cover a wide range of cellular functions, including gene expression, intracellular signaling, cell death control, stress responses, and metabolic regulation, indicating the complexity of ATRA-induced cell growth control and differentiation in APL. One of these proteins, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2D3, is up-regulated in ATRA-treated acute promyelocytic NB4 cells. UBE2D3 is physically associated with cyclin D1 and mediates ATRA-induced cyclin D1 degradation. Knocking down UBE2D3 by RNA interference (RNAi) leads to blockage of ATRA-induced cyclin D1 degradation and cell-cycle arrest. Thus, our results highlight the involvement of the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway in ATRA-induced cell-cycle arrest and provide a novel strategy for modulating ATRA-elicited cellular effects.
Project description:Forkhead box (FOX) genes encode transcription factors, which regulate embryogenesis and play an important role in hematopoietic differentiation and in mesenchymal niche maintenance. Overexpression of the family member FOXC1 has been reported in solid tumors and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We studied FOXC1 expression and function in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and normal hematopoietic progenitors. FOXC1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly lower in primary marrow samples from 27 APL patients, as compared to samples obtained from 27 patients with other AML subtypes, and 5 normal CD34+ hematopoietic cells. FOXC1 expression significantly increased in APL samples at the time of remission following consolidation treatment. In cell lines overexpressing PML-RARA, and in the NB4 t(15;17)-positive cell line, FOXC1 expression was lower than in other non-APL cell lines, and increased following treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), due to functional binding of ATRA to the FOXC1 promoter region. Reduced FOXC1 expression was also associated to DNA hypermethylation of the +354 to +568 FOXC1 region, both in primary APL, and in NB4 cells. Treatment of NB4 cells with decitabine demethylated FOXC1 and upregulated its expression. Our findings indicate that FOXC1 is consistently repressed in APL due to hypermethylation and the presence of the PML-RARA rearrangement. A potential role of hypomethylating treatment in advanced APL remains to be established.
Project description:S100A10 (p11), a member of the S100 family of small dimeric EF-hand-type Ca2+-binding proteins, plays a role in a variety of both intracellular and extracellular processes. Previous studies have suggested that p11 is intrinsically unstable and requires binding to annexin A2 (p36) to prevent its rapid ubiquitylation and degradation. Our laboratory has shown that p11 levels are stimulated by the expression of the oncoprotein, PML/RARα. Furthermore, treatment of the APL cell line, NB4 with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) causes the rapid loss of p36 and p11 protein. However, the mechanism by which ATRA regulates p11 levels has not been established. Here, we show that the proteasomal inhibitor, lactacystin reversed the ATRA-dependent loss of p11, but did not cause an accumulation of ubiquitylated forms of p11, suggesting that ATRA promotes the proteasomal degradation of p11 in an ubiquitin-independent manner. ATRA treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells reduced p11 but not p36 transcript and protein levels, thus indicating that ATRA can regulate p11 levels independently of PML/RARα and p36. Overexpression of p36 upregulated p11 protein but not mRNA levels, indicating that p36 affects p11 post translationally. The forced expression of ubiquitin and p11 in 293 T cells resulted in ubiquitylation of p11 that was blocked by mutagenesis of lysine 57. This study highlights the complex regulation of p11 by retinoid signaling and challenges the hypothesis that ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of p11 represents a universal mechanism of regulation of this protein.
Project description:NB4 is an APL derived cell line, carrying the t(15;17) translocation and expressing the PML/RARa fusion protein. Still, an important question that remains to be addressed is whether PML/RARa target genes are transcriptionally suppressed in primary APL cells and re-activated in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treated NB4 cells. Gene expression of NB4 cells treated with ATRA at different time points were analyzed. Overall design: 6 samples at various times. No replicats.
Project description:This report focuses on the children enrolled on the first North American Intergroup study of APL (INT0129). This study was designed to compare the rates of CR, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity of therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) for remission induction and/or maintenance compared to conventional chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated APL.Fifty-three patients who were documented to have the t(15;17) translocation were able to be evaluated for toxicity of treatment, outcome of induction, and survival.The overall CR rate was 81%. The estimated 5-year DFS from time of CR was 41% for all patients. The estimated 5-year OS for all patients from entry into the study was 69%. The 5-year DFS from time of CR for patients who were randomized to ATRA for induction or maintenance or both was 48% compared to 0% for patients who never received ATRA (P < 0.0001).The most important finding of our study is that a significant DFS advantage exists for children with APL who received ATRA during induction or maintenance or both compared to children who received no ATRA. Furthermore, remissions in these children appear durable as the OS rates are stable at 10 years.
Project description:Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is characterized by a block in differentiation where leukemic cells are halted at the promyelocyte stage. A characteristic balanced chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 t (15;17) (q24; q21) is seen in 95% of cases - the translocation results in the formation of the PML-RARA fusion protein. The introduction of retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been responsible for initially remarkable cure rates. However, relapsed APL, particularly in the high-risk subset of patients, remains an important clinical problem. In addition, despite the success of ATRA & ATO, many clinicians still elect to use cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of APL. Patients who become resistant to ATO have an increased risk of mortality. The probability of relapse is significantly higher in the high-risk subset of patients undergoing treatment for APL; overall approximately 10-20% of APL patients relapse regardless of their risk stratification. Furthermore, 20-25% of patients undergoing treatment will develop differentiation syndrome, a common side effect of differentiation agents. Recent evidence using in vitro models has shown that mutations in the B2 domain of the PML protein, mediate arsenic resistance. Alternative agents and approaches considering these clinical outcomes are needed to address ATO resistance as well as the relapse rate in high risk APL.