AmpliSeq Data of WT and SLC38A10 knockout primary cortex cells in amino acid starvation and refed conditions
ABSTRACT: Samples-WT Basal condition primary cortex cells; WT B27 Starved-Primary cortex cells starved overnight without B27 supplement media. WT AA Starved-Primary cortex cell starved without amino acid for 2 hours. WT AA Refed-Primary cortex cell refed for 1 hour after amino acid starvation. KO Basal-SLC38 Knockout Primary cortex cells starved overnight without B27 supplement media. KO B27 Starved-SLC38 Knockout Primary cortex cell starved without amino acid for 2 hours. KO AA starved-SLC38 Knockout Primary cortex cell refed for 1 hour after amino acid starvation. KO AA Refed-SLC38 Knockout Primary cortex cell refed for 1 hour after amino acid starvation.
INSTRUMENT(S): Ion Torrent S5 XL, Ion Chef™ System and Ion S5™ System or Ion GeneStudio™ S5 Systems.
Project description:1. Epididymal adipose tissues obtained from rats that had been previously starved, starved and refed a high fat diet for 72h, starved and refed bread for 144h or fed a normal diet were incubated in the presence of insulin+glucose or insulin+glucose+acetate. 2. Measurements were made of the whole-tissue concentrations of hexose phosphates, triose phosphates, glycerol 1-phosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, 6-phosphogluconate, adenine nucleotides, acid-soluble CoA, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA, malate and citrate after 1h of incubation. The release of lactate, pyruvate and glycerol into the incubation medium during this period was also determined. 3. The rates of metabolism of glucose in the hexose monophosphate pathway, the glycolytic pathway, the citric acid cycle and into glyceride glycerol, fatty acids and lactate+pyruvate were also determined over a 2h period in similarly treated tissues. The metabolism of acetate to CO(2) and fatty acids in the presence of glucose was also measured. 4. The activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were determined in adipose tissues from starved, starved and fat-refed, and alloxan-diabetic animals and also in tissues from animals that had been starved and refed bread for up to 96h. Changes in these activities were compared with the ability of similar tissues to incorporate [(14)C]glucose into fatty acids in vitro. 5. The activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase roughly paralleled the ability of tissues to incorporate glucose into fatty acids. 6. Rates of triglyceride synthesis and fatty acid synthesis could not be correlated with tissue concentrations of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA, citrate or glycerol 1-phosphate. In some cases changes in phosphofructokinase flux rates could be correlated with changes in citrate concentration. 7. The main lesion in fatty acid synthesis in tissues from starved, starved and fat-refed, and alloxan-diabetic rats appeared to reside at the level of pyruvate utilization and to be related to the rate of endogenous lipolysis. 8. It is suggested that pyruvate utilization by the tissue may be regulated by the metabolism of fatty acids within the tissue. The significance of this in directing glucose utilization away from fatty acid synthesis and into glyceride-glycerol synthesis is discussed.
Project description:Arteriovenous differences of amino acids across the mammary glands of lactating rats are diminished when the rats are starved for 24 h. When 24 h-starved rats were refed for 2 1/2 h, the arteriovenous differences of amino acids returned to values similar to those found in well-fed rats. In order to find a possible explanation for these rapid changes, we tested the effect of ketone bodies on amino acid uptake by the gland. At 5 min after injection of acetoacetate to fed rats, when the total concentration of ketone bodies in blood was similar to that found in starvation, the uptake of amino acids by the mammary gland was similar to that found after starvation, i.e. lower than in fed rats. However, 30 min after administration of acetoacetate, when the arterial concentration of ketone bodies had returned to values similar to those in fed rats, the arteriovenous differences of amino acids were similar to those found in fed rats. We conclude that the changes in blood ketone bodies may be responsible, at least in part, for the changes in amino acid uptake that occur in starvation and in the starvation--refeeding transition.
Project description:Administration of insulin with glucose to starved lactating rats, which activates pyruvate dehydrogenase [M. A. Baxter & H. G. Coore (1978) Biochiem. J. 174, 553-561], restored lipogenesis in mammary gland in vivo to 50% of the value observed in refed (2.5 h) rats. The correlations between pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and the rate of lipogenesis persisted in isolated acini. Activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in vitro with dichloroacetate increased lipogenesis from [6-14C]glucose in acini from starved and refed rats by 250% and 100% respectively. However, in the presence of dichloroacetate, only 70% of the increased flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase was converted into lipid in acini from starved rats, whereas all of the increase could be accounted for as lipid in acini from refed rats. Addition of insulin plus dichloroacetate was required to obtain maximal rates of lipogenesis in acini from starved rats. Similarly, insulin increased the incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into lipid only in acini from starved rats. Although the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase plays an important role in the control of mammary-gland lipogenesis, the evidence presented suggests a second regulatory site which is insulin-sensitive and is located after the generation of cytosolic acetyl-CoA.
Project description:The requirement for a normal insulin response in mediating the starved-to-refed transition, with respect to the partitioning of hepatic fatty acids between beta-oxidation and esterification to glycerol, was studied. Diabetic rats were starved for 24 h and refed ad libitum for various periods of time. There was no increase in plasma insulin in response to the meal. However, the fatty acid oxidation:esterification ratio was very rapidly decreased from the starved to the fed value, most of the transition being achieved within the first hour of refeeding. There was a 2 h lag in the response of hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, such that this rapid switch from oxidation to esterification could not be explained on the basis of changes in the absolute concentration of this inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I). Hepatic pyruvate and lactate concentrations both increased by several-fold upon refeeding and peaked after 1 h and 3 h, respectively. The hepatic lactate:pyruvate ratio increased 3.2-fold during the first 3 h of refeeding, suggesting that the cytosolic NAD(+)-NADH couple became much more highly reduced during the lag-period between the onset of inhibition of flux of fatty acids towards oxidation and the rise in malonyl-CoA concentration. This may be indicative of a lowering of intracellular pH, which would amplify greatly the sensitivity of CPT I to the inhibitor. In view of the very rapid and high food intake by these diabetic rats, the possibility is also considered that portal concentrations of amino acids and other metabolites could give rise to an increase in liver cell-volume that would inhibit CPT I acutely by an as yet unknown mechanism [M. Guzman, G. Velasco, J. Castro and V. A. Zammit (1994) FEBS Lett. 344, 239-241].
Project description:We have used the cold-clamping technique to study the changes in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity that occur in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of the liver of fed, starved and starved-refed rats. No evidence was found for a role of the mitochondrial enzyme as a pool from which cytosolic carboxylase could be replenished upon refeeding of starved rats. Starvation for 24 h or 48 h induced changes in the expressed (assayed at 20 mM-citrate), total (citrate- and phosphatase-treated) and citrate-independent activities of cytosolic carboxylase, as well as in its Ka for citrate. The expressed/total activity ratio was low even in the fed state and was depressed further by starvation. The effects of refeeding occurred in two phases: an acute phase (approx. 1 h) in which the starvation-induced changes in Ka and expressed/total activity ratio were rapidly reversed, and a prolonged slow phase in which the two parameters attained values that were lower and higher, respectively, than those in the normal fed state. Refeeding also resulted in a gradual increase in citrate-independent activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. An additional marked increase in this activity occurred only in 48 h-starved-refed rats between 24 h and 48 h of refeeding. These findings are discussed in terms of the observed time courses of changes in lipogenic rates that occur in vivo in starved-refed rats and of the possible molecular mechanisms involved.
Project description:Depression of carbohydrate digestion by oral administration of acarbose, a glucosidase inhibitor, led to a 75% inhibition of the re-activation of lipogenesis in vivo in the mammary gland of 18 h-starved lactating rats refed with 5 g of chow diet. Rates of [1-14C]glucose incorporation in vitro into lipid and CO2 in mammary-gland acini isolated from refed animals were elevated compared with acini from starved rats, but acarbose treatment completely prevented this stimulation. Gastric intubation of glucose led to a large stimulation of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of starved lactating rats, similar to that induced by refeeding with chow diet; this was dependent on the amount of glucose given and the time elapsed between glucose administration and injection of 3H2O for the measurement of lipogenesis. The switch-on of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of starved lactating rats, by refeeding or by intubation of glucose, was associated with a decrease in the ratio of [glucose 6-phosphate]/[fructose 1,6-bisphosphate] in the gland, indicative of an increase in phosphofructokinase activity. A time-course study revealed that the ratio decreased rapidly over the first 30 min of chow refeeding, after which a large surge in lipogenesis was seen. Acarbose, given 25 min after the onset of refeeding, led to a stepwise increase in the ratio, in parallel with the observed decrease in lipogenic activity. It is concluded that the control of lipogenesis in the mammary gland is closely linked to the availability of dietary carbohydrate. An important site of regulation of lipogenesis in the gland appears to be at the level of phosphofructokinase. A possible role of insulin in the regulation of phosphofructokinase activity, and the acute modulation of insulin-sensitivity in the gland during the starved-refed transition, are discussed.
Project description:It has been shown recently that glutamine is taken up by the mouse kidney in vivo. However, knowledge about the fate of this amino acid and the regulation of its metabolism in the mouse kidney remains poor. Given the physiological and pathophysiological importance of renal glutamine metabolism and the increasing use of genetically modified mice in biological research, we have conducted a study to characterize glutamine metabolism in the mouse kidney. Proximal tubules isolated from fed and 48 h-starved mice and then incubated with a physiological concentration of glutamine, removed this amino acid and produced ammonium ions at similar rates. In agreement with this observation, activities of the ammoniagenic enzymes, glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase, were not different in the renal cortex of fed and starved mice, but the glutamate dehydrogenase mRNA level was elevated 4.5-fold in the renal cortex from starved mice. In contrast, glucose production from glutamine was greatly stimulated whereas the glutamine carbon removed, that was presumably completely oxidized in tubules from fed mice, was virtually suppressed in tubules from starved animals. In accordance with the starvation-induced stimulation of glutamine gluconeogenesis, the activities and mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase, and especially of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, but not of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, were increased in the renal cortex of starved mice. On the basis of our in vitro results, the elevated urinary excretion of ammonium ions observed in starved mice probably reflected an increased transport of these ions into the urine at the expense of those released into the renal veins rather than a stimulation of renal ammoniagenesis.
Project description:The effects of the ingestion of a meal on the partitioning of hepatic fatty acids between oxidation and esterification were studied in vivo for meal-fed rats. The time course for the reversal of the starved state was extremely rapid and the process was complete within 2 h, in marked contrast with the reversal of the effects of starvation in rats fed ad libitum [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1993) Biochem. J. 289, 49-55]. This rapid reversal occurred in spite of the fact that, in the liver of the meal-fed animals before feeding, a similar degree of partitioning of fatty acids in favour of oxidation was observed as in 24 h-starved rats (previously fed ad libitum). This suggested that the lower degree of ketonaemia observed in meal-fed rats before a meal is not due to the inability of acylcarnitine formation to compete successfully with esterification of fatty acids to the glycerol moiety. Investigation of the possible mechanisms that could contribute towards the rapid switching-off of fatty acid oxidation revealed that this was correlated with a very rapid rise and overshoot in hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, but not with any change in the activity, or sensitivity to malonyl-CoA, of the mitochondrial overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I). The role of these two parameters in the reversal of fasting-induced hepatic fatty acid oxidation was thus the inverse of that observed previously for refed 24 h-starved rats. The rapid increase in [malonyl-CoA] was accompanied by an immediate and complete reversion of the kinetic characteristics (Ka for citrate, expressed/total activity ratio) of acetyl-CoA carboxylase to those found in the post-meal animals, again in contrast with the time course observed in refed 24 h-starved rats [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1990) Biochem. J. 272, 511-517]. The rapidity with which these changes occurred was specific to the partitioning of acyl-CoA; the meal-induced diversion of glycerolipids towards phospholipid synthesis and the acute inhibition of the fractional rate of triacylglycerol secretion occurred with very similar time courses to those observed upon refeeding of 24 h-starved rats. The results confirm the central role played by differences in the dynamics of changes in hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, and CPT I sensitivity to it, in determining the route through which ingested glucose is converted into hepatic glycogen upon refeeding of starved rats which had previously been meal-fed or fed ad libitum.
Project description:Lactating rats were starved for 48 h and refed a high-carbohydrate diet for a further 48 h. Starvation stops milk secretion, which resumes shortly after refeeding. Three lipogenic enzymes, fatty acid synthase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168) and 'malic' enzyme (EC 22.214.171.124) all decrease in the mammary gland during starvation and are restored to the pre-starvation levels 48 h after refeeding. The same enzymes in liver also decrease during starvation, but increase to values significantly higher than those for the normal fed rats after refeeding the high-carbohydrate diet. For the fatty acid synthase these values were four times the pre-starvation values. Serum insulin and prolactin concentrations also increased upon refeeding the high-carbohydrate diet.
Project description:Background and Objectives:Spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a heterogeneous group of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases that have overlapping clinical features, genetic predisposition, and pathogenic mechanisms. Hence, we investigated, through a case-control study, whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms of TNF and IL17 genes are associated with SpA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in a mixed Brazilian population. Methods:Genotyping of TNF-308 (rs1800629), TNF-238 (rs361525), IL17A (rs2275913), IL17F (rs763780), and HLA-B27 polymorphisms was performed in 243 patients with SpA and 210 controls from Southern Brazil using SSOP-Luminex (One Lambda) and PCR-SSP assays. Results:Significant associations were confirmed between the HLA-B27 marker and SpA, AS, and PsA diseases. While TNF-308 (rs1800629) AA/GA, IL17A (rs2275913) AA/GA, and IL17F (rs763780) CC/TC genotype frequencies were associated, in the dominance inheritance model, with SpA and AS, regardless of gender, the presence of HLA-B27, TNF-238 (rs361525) GA/AA, IL17A (rs2275913) AA/GA, and IL17F (rs763780) genotypes was associated with PsA. Conclusion:In this Brazilian population, TNF and IL17 gene polymorphisms responsible for the expression of important inflammatory cytokines were associated with overall SpA, and, specifically, with AS and PsA, regardless of gender and HLA-B27. However, future larger studies with different ethnicities may be necessary to confirm these genetic associations.