Transcriptional profiling of ultraconserved Regions in Lung Cancer patients
ABSTRACT: In this study, we identified the dysregulated ultraconserved regions (UCRs) in Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer patients. We measured the expression profile of UCRs in 18 paired frozen tumor and adjacent non-tumor lung, by microarray analysis. This analysis is performed to identify the most significant dysregulated T-UCRs in tumor compared to the near non-cancerous lung tissue.
Project description:In this study, we identified the dysregulated ultraconserved regions (UCRs) in Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer patients. We measured the expression profile of UCRs in 18 paired frozen tumor and adjacent non-tumor lung, by microarray analysis. This analysis is performed to identify the most significant dysregulated T-UCRs in tumor compared to the near non-cancerous lung tissue.
Project description:The expression of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is dysregulated in human cancers. The transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) express long ncRNAs involved in human carcinogenesis. T-UCRs are non-coding genomic sequence that are 100% conserved across humans, rats and mice. Conservation of genomic sequences across species intrinsically implies an essential functional role and so we considered the expression of T-UCRs in lung cancer. Using a custom microarray we analyzed the global expression of T-UCRs. Among these T-UCRs, the greatest variation was observed for antisense ultraconserved element 83 (uc.83-), which was upregulated in human lung cancer tissues compared with adjacent non cancerous tissues. Even though uc.83- is located within the long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1876 (LINC01876) gene, we found that the transcribed uc.83- is expressed independently of LINC01876 and was cloned as a 1143-bp RNA gene. In this study, functional analysis confirmed important effects of uc.83- on genes involved in cell growth of human cells. siRNA against uc.83- decreased the growth of lung cancer cells while the upregulation through a vector overexpressing the uc.83- RNA increased cell proliferation. We also show the oncogenic function of uc.83- is mediated by the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK 1/2, two important biomarkers of lung cancer cell proliferation. Based on our findings, inhibition against uc.83- could be a future therapeutic treatment for NSCLC to achieve simultaneous blockade of pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis.
Project description:Ultraconserved regions (UCRs) are segments of the human genome located in both intragenic and intergenic regions that are highly conserved in orthologous regions of the human, rat, and mouse genomes. Their transcriptional products, called T-UCRs, compose a new category of long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs). Most importantly, recent data suggests that T-UCRs are altered at the transcriptional level in human tumorigenesis and the aberrant T-UCRs expression profiles can be used to differentiate human cancer types. MicroRNAs and other types of non-codingRNAs have been shown to greatly contribute at biological function of cancer and are increasingly being used to help prognosticate patients with bladder cancer, this is not yet the case for T-UCRs. The presence and the roles for T-UCRs across different species is largely unknown rendering their investigation particularly important in our understanding the biology of cancer. Using genome-wide profiling, we identified 293 T-UCRs that were dysregulated in bladder tumor (n = 24) but not normal bladder tissues (n = 17) samples. The greatest change in expression was for the ultraconserved element 8 (uc.8+), whose expression significantly increased (6.7 fold; P = 0.001) in bladder cancer tissues. Dysregulated expression was validated for several T-UCRs in 60 patients and 16 healthy donors. We found that T-UCR 8+ acts as a natural decoy RNA for miR-596 in patients and bladder cancer cells. As a result, expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9, a direct target of this microRNA, was upregulated, thereby promoting cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion. We also observed that mir-596 mediated a network of interactions among uc.8+, uc.339+, uc.195+, and uc.388+, which appeared to be dysregulated in bladder tumors. Transcribed ultraconserved ncRNAs provide an evolutionarily-conserved regulatory layer that modulates miRNA levels, and opens up the possibility for the development of useful markers for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as for the development of new RNA-based cancer therapies. Overall design: In this study the genome-wide expression of T-UCRs in 17 normal bladder tissue samples obtained from healthy donors and 24 bladder tumor samples was analysed To identify variation in the expression of T-UCRs among cancerous, pericancerous, and normal bladder tissue samples, the UCG profiles of bladder tumor and matched pericancerous tissue (urothelium surrounding tumors) samples collected from three BlCa patients was analysed.
Project description:Recent data have linked hypoxia, a classic feature of the tumor microenvironment, to the function of specific microRNAs (miRNAs); however, whether hypoxia affects other types of noncoding transcripts is currently unknown. Starting from a genome-wide expression profiling, we demonstrate for the first time a functional link between oxygen deprivation and the modulation of long noncoding transcripts from ultraconserved regions, termed transcribed-ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs). Interestingly, several hypoxia-upregulated T-UCRs, henceforth named 'hypoxia-induced noncoding ultraconserved transcripts' (HINCUTs), are also overexpressed in clinical samples from colon cancer patients. We show that these T-UCRs are predominantly nuclear and that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is at least partly responsible for the induction of several members of this group. One specific HINCUT, uc.475 (or HINCUT-1) is part of a retained intron of the host protein-coding gene, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase, which is overexpressed in epithelial cancer types. Consistent with the hypothesis that T-UCRs have important function in tumor formation, HINCUT-1 supports cell proliferation specifically under hypoxic conditions and may be critical for optimal O-GlcNAcylation of proteins when oxygen tension is limiting. Our data gives a first glimpse of a novel functional hypoxic network comprising protein-coding transcripts and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the T-UCRs category.
Project description:Transcribed-ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) encoded by a subset of long ultraconserved stretches in the human genome. Recent studies revealed that the expression of several T-UCRs is altered in cancer and growing evidences underline the importance of T-UCRs in oncogenesis, offering also potential new strategies for diagnosis and prognosis. We found that overexpression of one specific T-UCRs named uc.63 is associated with bad outcome in luminal A subtype of breast cancer patients. uc.63 is localized in the third intron of exportin-1 gene (XPO1) and is transcribed in the same orientation of its host gene. Interestingly, silencing of uc.63 induces apoptosis in vitro. However, silencing of host gene XPO1 does not cause the same effect suggesting that the transcription of uc.63 is independent of XPO1. Our results reveal an important role of uc.63 in promoting breast cancer cells survival and offer the prospect to identify a signature associated with poor prognosis.
Project description:All bilaterian animals share a general genetic framework that controls the formation of their body structures, although their forms are highly diversified. The Hox genes that encode transcription factors play a central role in this framework. All Hox proteins contain a highly conserved homeodomain encoded by the homeobox motif, but the other regions are generally assumed to be less conserved. In this study, we used comparative genomic methods to infer possible functional elements in the coding regions of mammalian Hox genes.We identified a set of ultraconserved coding regions (UCRs) outside the homeobox of mammalian Hox genes. Here a UCR is defined as a region of at least 120 nucleotides without synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions among different orders of mammals. Further analysis has indicated that these UCRs occur only in placental mammals and they evolved apparently after the split of placental mammals from marsupials. Analysis of human SNP data suggests that these UCRs are maintained by strong purifying selection.Although mammalian genomes are known to contain ultraconserved non-coding elements (UNEs), this paper seems to be the first to report the UCRs in protein coding genes. The extremely high degree of sequence conservation in non-homeobox regions suggests that they might have important roles for the functions of Hox genes. We speculate that UCRs have some gene regulatory functions possibly in relation to the development of the intra-uterus child-bearing system.
Project description:The transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) are a family of long non-coding RNAs implicated in human carcinogenesis. The mechanism of action of T-UCRs and the factors regulating their expression in human cancers are poorly understood. In this study we show that high expression of uc.339 correlates with lower survival in 204 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We also show that uc.339 found up-regulated in archival NSCLC samples, functions as a decoy for miR-339-3p, -663-3p and -95-5p. As a result, Cyclin E2, a direct target of these microRNAs is up-regulated, promoting cancer growth and migration. We provide evidence from cell lines and primary samples suggesting that TP53 directly regulates uc.339. Our results support a key role for uc.339 in lung cancer. 4 experimental groups in triplicate (total: 12 samples). A339= A549 infected with a lentivirus over-expressing uc.339; AE= A549 infected with an empty lentivirus (control of A339); L339= LoVo infected with a lentivirus over-expressing uc.330; LE= LoVo infected with an empty lentivirus (control of L339). 1-2-3 refer to each experiment.
Project description:Transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with 100% sequence conservation among human, rat and mouse genomes. T-UCRs are differentially expressed in several cancers, however their expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not been studied. We used a qPCR array to profile all 481 T-UCRs in pancreatic cancer specimens, pancreatic cancer cell lines, during experimental pancreatic desmoplasia and in the pancreases of P48Cre/wt; KrasLSL-G12D/wt mice. Fourteen, 57 and 29% of the detectable T-UCRs were differentially expressed in the cell lines, human tumors and transgenic mouse pancreases, respectively. The vast majority of the differentially expressed T-UCRs had increased expression in the cancer. T-UCRs were monitored using an in vitro model of the desmoplastic reaction. Twenty-five % of the expressed T-UCRs were increased in the HPDE cells cultured on PANC-1 cellular matrix. UC.190, UC.233 and UC.270 were increased in all three human data sets. siRNA knockdown of each of these three T-UCRs reduced the proliferation of MIA PaCa-2 cells up to 60%. The expression pattern among many T-UCRs in the human and mouse pancreases closely correlated with one another, suggesting that groups of T-UCRs are co-activated in PDAC. Successful knockout of the transcription factor EGR1 in PANC-1 cells caused a reduction in the expression of a subset of T-UCRs suggesting that EGR1 may control T-UCR expression in PDAC. We report a global increase in expression of T-UCRs in both human and mouse PDAC. Commonalties in their expression pattern suggest a similar mechanism of transcriptional upregulation for T-UCRs in PDAC.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Human and rodent genomes diverged ?75 million years ago. However, 481 regions of their genomes (200-779 nucleotide each) remained absolutely conserved and form noncoding RNAs known as transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs). The functional significance of T-UCRs is not apparent, but their altered expression is associated with many diseases, and thus thought to be critical for life. We presently investigated the poststroke temporal changes in the expression of T-UCRs with potential functional significance. METHODS:Male, spontaneously hypertensive rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Expression profile of T-UCRs was determined at 3, 6, and 12 hours of reperfusion using microarrays and real-time polymerase chain reaction in the peri-infarct cortex. The putative functional significance of stroke-responsive T-UCRs was identified by bioinformatics. RESULTS:Ischemia altered expression of 69 T-UCRs at ?1 time points of reperfusion compared with sham. Poststroke expression of the intragenic T-UCRs is independent of the expression of their parent gene mRNAs. Bioinformatics showed that the upstream/downstream and the parent genes of the T-UCRs modulate several biological and molecular functions, including metabolism, response to stimuli, cell communication, protein and nucleic acid binding. CONCLUSIONS:This first report shows that ischemic stroke temporally alters the noncoding ultraconserved RNAs in spontaneously hypertensive rats, but their functional significance is yet to be evaluated.
Project description:The transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) encode long non-coding RNAs implicated in human carcinogenesis. Their mechanisms of action and the factors regulating their expression in cancers are poorly understood. Here we show that high expression of uc.339 correlates with lower survival in 210 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We provide evidence from cell lines and primary samples that TP53 directly regulates uc.339. We find that transcribed uc.339 is upregulated in archival NSCLC samples, functioning as a decoy RNA for miR-339-3p, -663b-3p, and -95-5p. As a result, Cyclin E2, a direct target of all these microRNAs is upregulated, promoting cancer growth and migration. Finally, we find that modulation of uc.339 affects microRNA expression. However, overexpression or downregulation of these microRNAs causes no significant variations in uc.339 levels, suggesting a type of interaction for uc.339 that we call "entrapping". Our results support a key role for uc.339 in lung cancer.