Transcription profiling by array of H. sapeins NSCLC A549 cell line to investigate two distinct poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors as a hyperadditive combination effect with CDDP
ABSTRACT: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is often treated with cisplatin (CDDP). Here, we report that two distinct poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors exhibited a hyperadditive combination effect with CDDP to kill NSCLC cells. A majority of CDDP-resistant cell lines and clones exhibited constitutively increased PARP expression and enzymatic activity. Cells with hyperactivated PARP initiated a DNA damage response and the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in response to pharmacological PARP inhibition or PARP1-targeting siRNAs. Transcriptome analysis depicted an unsupervised hierarchical clustering of NSCLC cells and CDDP resistant counterparts regarding to their response to PARP inhibitors. PARP-overexpressing tumors displayed elevated levels of intracellular poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which predicted the response to PARP inhibitors in vitro and in vivo more accurately than PARP expression itself. Thus, CDDP-resistant cancer cells develop a dependency to PARP, becoming susceptible to PARP inhibitor-induced apoptosis.
Project description:This experiment is designed to screen miRNAs that are deregulated during chemoresistance-associated metastasis of lung cancer cells. Chemoresistant metastatic in vivo tumor model of A549-luc-Vector cells was established after four rounds of cisplatin (CDDP) treatments compared to corresponding control solvent treatments. Upon examining profiles of miRNA expression differential between tumor-derived cultured cells from the Ctrl-4th and CDDP-4th treatments, most markedly upregulated and downregulated miRNAs in chemoresistant, metastatic A549-luc-CDDP-4th cells were identified. In order to establish a chemoresistant in vivo tumor model, after inoculation of A549-luc-Vector cells, cisplatin (CDDP) or control solvent was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected six rounds in a two-week period and cells were isolated from corresponding resultant tumors, cultured and re-transplanted into syngeneic mice to receive the next round of treatment. In our experimental model, human lung cancer xenografts developed chemoresistance in the third round of CDDP treatment (CDDP-3rd) and chemoresistance-associated metastases following the fourth round of treatment. Tumor-derived cultured cells from Ctrl-4th and CDDP (cisplatin)-4th treatment were subjected to miRNA array (Agilent-031181 human miRNA (8*60k) V16.0) analysis, with two biological replications for each treatment.
Project description:The HERV-K(HML2) family is a group of elements of retroviral origin that are present in the human genome. They are silenced in most normal tissues, but are induced in a number of human cancers. In order to assess the relevance of their expression in these pathologies, the consequences of ectopic expression of the HERV-K(HML2) envelope protein were analysed in human 293T cells. The cells were transfected with a control vector, or an expression vector for the HERV-K(HML2) envelope protein. Total RNA was extracted 24h and 48h post transfection, and duplicate samples were analysed on whole genome transcriptional microarrays.
Project description:We had previously demonstrated the role of CD103 integrin on lung tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) clones in promoting specific TCR-mediated epithelial tumor cell cytotoxicity. However, the contribution of CD103 on intratumoral T-cell distribution and functions, and the prognosis significance of TIL subpopulations in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have thus far not been systematically addressed. Here we investigate the transcriptomic profil of these cell population, using PBMC cells as control.
Project description:The plasticity of cancer stem cells (CSCs)/tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) indicates that multiple CSC/T-IC subpopulations exist within a tumor and multiple oncogenic pathways collaborate to maintain the CSC/T-IC state. Here, we aimed to enrich for T-ICs from clinical ESCC tissues. A chemoresistant human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patient-derived xenograft model was employed to identify miRNA(s) that contribute to ESCC aggressiveness. We used microarrays to demenstrate the microRNA expression underlying different pretreated conditions. NOG mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts derived from clinical ESCC cells were intraperitoneally treated with CDDP or PBS twice weekly for three weeks. Tumor cells were then isolated and re-inoculated subcutaneously into NOG mice for the next round of treatment. In the 4th round of treatment, the volume of tumors in both CDDP- and PBS-treated groups were approximately the same, suggesting that the cells in CDDP-treated tumors were becoming resistant to CDDP. microRNA expression was measured by RNA extraction from cisplatin-treated tumors (EC-CR) or PBS-treated tumors(EC-UT) after 4 round of treatment,two microarrays were performed for each sample.
Project description:The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal tumors can be recognized by an increased frequency of aberrant methylation in a specific set of genomic loci. Because of the strong association of CIMP with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), the identification of CIMP+ tumors within microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancers may not be straightforward. To overcome this potential limitation, we have built an improved 7-loci set of methylation markers that includes CACNA1G, IGF2, RUNX3, HTR6, RIZ1, MINT31 and MAP1B. This new set of CIMP markers revealed a bimodal distribution of methylation frequencies in a group of 95 MSS colorectal cancers, which allowed a clearer separation between CIMP classes. Correlation of CIMP+ tumors with bio-pathological traits revealed significant associations with location to the proximal colon, mucinous histology and chromosomal stability. Although not statistically significant, a trend toward an adverse prognosis for CIMP+ cases was observed. Microarray analysis revealed that CIMP+ tumors are characterized by a unique expression profile, a result that confirms that CIMP+ tumors represent a distinct molecular class within MSS colorectal cancers. Moreover, our results suggest that this expression pattern may represent the molecular background for the development of CIMP+ tumors that, in turn, develop MSI when aberrant methylation occurs at the MLH1 gene promoter.
Project description:The mouse aldehyde oxidase, Aox4 (aldehyde oxidase 4), is a molybdo-flavoenzyme. Harderian glands are the richest source of Aox4, although the protein is detectable also in sebaceous glands, epidermis and other keratinized epithelia. We performed whole genome gene expression experiment on Harderian Gland, White Adipose Tissue and Liver of WT and Aox4-/- animals.
Project description:RNA was extracted with Rneasy Micro Kit (Qiagen, France) from SKBR3 cells treated with 1 uM ATRA. The quantity and purity of the extracted RNA was evaluated using a NanoDropTM spectrophotometer and its integrity measured using an Agilent BioanalyzerTM. For microarray hybridizations, 500 ng of total RNA from each RNA sample was amplified and labeled with two fluorescents dye (Cy5 and Cy3) using the Quick Amplification Labeling kit (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) following the manufacturer's protocol. Cy3-labeled and Cy5-labelled cRNA were hybridized to the Agilent Human Whole Genome Oligo Microarray format 4x44K (Agilent Technologies), prior to washing and scanning.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) responds to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erlotinib. However, secondary somatic EGFR mutations (e.g. T790M) confer resistance to erlotinib. BMS-690514, a novel panHER/VEGFR inhibitor described here, exerted antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on NSCLC cell lines, with prominent efficacy on H1975 cells expressing the T790M mutation. In this model, BMS-690514 induced a G1 cell cycle arrest, as well as ultrastructural hallmarks of apoptosis, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspases involved in the intrinsic (e.g. caspase -2, -3, -7 and -9), but not in the extrinsic (e.g. caspase-8) pathway. Caspase inhibition conferred partial protection against BMS-690514 cytotoxicity, pointing to the involvement of both caspase-dependent and -independent effector mechanisms. Transcriptome analyses revealed the upregulation of pro-apoptotic (e.g. Bim, Puma) and cell cycle inhibitory (e.g. p27Kip1, p57Kip2) factors, as well as the downregulation of anti-apoptotic (e.g. Mcl1), heat shock (e.g. HSP40, HSP70, HSP90) and cell cycle promoting (e.g. cyclins B1, D1 and D3, CDK1, MCM family proteins, PCNA) proteins. BMS-690514-induced death of H1975 cells was modified in a unique fashion by a panel of siRNAs targeting apoptosis modulators. Downregulation of components of the NF-kappaB survival pathway (e.g. p65, Nemo/IKK, TAB2) sensitized cells to BMS-690514, whereas knockdown of pro-apoptotic factors (e.g. Puma, Bax, Bak, caspase-2, etc) and DNA damage-related proteins (e.g. ERCC1, hTERT) exerted cytoprotective effects. BMS-690514 is a new pan-HER/VEGFR inhibitor that may become an alternative to erlotinib for the treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive asymmetric muscle weakness. Myoblasts isolated from FSHD muscles exhibit morphological differentiation defects and show a distinct transcription profile. These abnormalities may be linked to the muscle weakness in FSHD patients. Here, we have tested whether fusion of FSHD myoblasts (obtained from 2 patients) with primary myoblasts isolated from 2 healthy individuals could correct the differentiation defects. Our results show that the number of hybrid myotubes with normal phenotype increased with the percentage of normal myoblasts initially cultured. We demonstrated that a minimum of 50% of normal nuclei is required for a phenotypic correction of the FSHD phenotype. To test the correction on the functional level we analyzed transcriptomic profiles of phenotypically corrected hybrid myotubes. These myotubes were cultured in DMEM with 10% FBS. The present study concerns gene expression of FSHD, normal and hybrid myotubes after RNA extraction (TriPrep NucleoSpin ® kit) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Gene expression was performed in single color on Agilent 8x60K Human whole genome (design 039494) minimum in duplicates in each condition. Transcriptomic profiles of phenotypically corrected hybrid myotubes showed that the expression of deregulated genes in FSHD myotubes became almost normal. We thus propose that while phenotypical and functional correction of FSHD is feasible, it requires more than 50% of normal myoblasts, it creates limitations for cell therapy in the FSHD context.
Project description:Radiotherapy has a critical role in the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Effectiveness of radiation in SCLC remains limited as resistance results from defects in apoptosis. In the current study, we investigated whether using a Bcl-2/Bcl-XL inhibitor S44563 can enhance radiosensitivity of SCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies confirmed that S44563 induce apoptosis in SCLC cells by inducing hallmarks of apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3, sub-G1 fraction induction and induction of the mitochondrial caspase activation pathway). S44563 markedly enhanced sensitivity of H146 cells and H69 cells to radiation in clonogenic assay. In addition, the combination S44563 and cisplatin-based chemo-radiation showed a dramatic tumor growth delay and increased overall survival in mouse xenograft models. In vitro experiments demonstrated a greater induction of apoptosis (sub-G1 fraction and cleaved caspase-3) with the combination as well as in vivo caspase-3 immunostaining. This positive interaction between S44563 and radiation was greater when S44563 was given after the completion of the radiation, which may be explained by the radiation-induced over expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL) through the NF-?B pathway activation. Taken together, these data underline the critical role of sequence administration of targeted therapies with conventional therapies. SCLC cells which survive to IR highly rely on the induction of anti apoptotic proteins in part through NF- ?B activation for their survival yielding to the concept of 'contextual oncogene addiction' to the Bcl-2/Bcl-XL pathway providing rational for targeting survival pathways to potentiate IR. For transcriptome analysis, 106 cells were seeded in T25 flasks, allowed to growth for 24 h, and then left untreated or treated with 2 Gy radiation. After 24 hours, cells were harvested, lysed for the extraction of RNA, and processed to analyze gene expression.The design of this study consists to 6 hybridizations in dual color with Agilent Human Genome 4x44K (design 014850). The reference is always the untreated condition.