RNA-seq of coding RNA from liver of mice fed diets of meat or tubers served either raw or cooked to index the effect of food substrate and food preparation on metabolism
ABSTRACT: The typical human diet differs substantially in a number of ways from that of other primates. For instance, although many humans consume meat on a regular basis, non-human primate diets are typically dominated by plant foods. In addition, most human populations cook the majority of their foods, whereas all other free-living primate species eat exclusively raw diets. Such differences in food substrates and food processing are hypothesized to exert a large influence on metabolism. If maintained over evolutionary timescales, dietary differences may have contributed to shaping important human-specific features. To index the effect of food substrate and food preparation on metabolism we measured liver gene expression in mice fed diets of meat or tubers served either raw or cooked.
Project description:Concentrations of leptin decline during food restriction. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that some of the effects of maternal food restriction on placental development are mediated by the loss of leptin. Mice were randomized to 3 treatment groups on day 1.5 of pregnancy: (1) ad libitum fed (control) (2) 50% food restriction (restricted) (3) 50% food restriction with leptin replacement (1µg/g body weight/day) (leptin). On day 11.5 placentas were collected, and two placentas from each mother were pooled for microarray analysis.
Project description:We report the human homologous microRNA profiles in food-grade, bovine-sourced sirloin, heart and adrenal tissue (raw, cooked, and laboratory-prepared pasteurized, freeze-dried extracts) Deep miRNA sequencing of sirloin (raw and cooked), heart tissue (raw, cooked, and pastuerized, freeze-dried extracts) and adrenal tissue (raw, cooked, and laboratory-prepared pasteurized, freeze-dried extracts), 3 replicates each process group
Project description:In a previous study, 50% calorie restriction in mice from days 1.5-11.5 of pregnancy resulted in reduced placental weights and areas, relatively sparing of labyrinth zone area compared to junctional zone area, and dramatic changes in global gene expression profiles. Here we examined placental gene expression at day 18.5, after the return to normal feeding to see whether differences were reversible Mice were randomized to 2 treatment groups on day 1.5 of pregnancy: (1) ad libitum fed (control) (2) 50% food restriction (restricted). Mice were returned to ad libitum feed on d11.5, sacrificed on d18.5 and placentas were collected.
Project description:A non-optimal fetal environment is known to cause low birth weight, which has been epidemiologically associated with a greater risk of adult diseases. Maternal undernutrition in animal models has also revealed the increased risks for adult diseases in the offspring. In this study, pregnant mice underwent overnight food deprivation at gestation day (GD)17 or 50% food restriction (FR) from GD10 to GD17, and the fetal brains were examined for global changes in gene expression by DNA microarray analysis utilizing the dye-swap approach. We present here a list of candidate genes from the fetal brain that might be responsible for developmental origins of health and disease. For food deprivation (FD), the pregnant mice were deprived of the food for overnight before lights were turned off on GD17. For food restriction (FR), pregnant mice were exposed to 50% food restriction (FR) from GD 10 to 17 and caesarean section was performed between 10:00-12:00 AM on GD18. Amount of CE-2 chow supplied to FR group was calculated as 50% of CE-2 consumed by control group each gestation day. Control group was supplied with chow ad libitum. Pregnant mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the fetuses were taken out and anesthetized on ice cold phosphate-buffered saline. The fetuses were dissected under a dissection microscope, and fetal tissues are carefully removed avoiding any other tissues contamination. The brain was collected from control (n=5) and FD (n=5) or FR (n=5) fetuses, and immediately frozen by immersion in liquid nitrogen. For DNA microarray analyses, the total RNA was extracted, quality and quantity determined, and total RNA from each sample (control and treatment) in each group was pooled, followed by established protocols for genome wide expression changes for both FD and FR samples using a 60-mer probes (4 x 44K (41,090 gene probes), mouse whole genome, Agilent) DNA chip by the dye-swap approach.
Project description:Food composition of diets strongly determines the risk of experiencing inflammation related metabolic or cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the extent of inheritance of inflammatory responses to isocaloric changes in food composition as a prerequisite of personalized dietary recommendations in human twins. 34 monozygotic and 12 dizygotic healthy pairs of twins recruited from a twin register (HealthTwiSt, Berlin, Germany) or by public advertisements completed the study. All participants received a low fat diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, 15% protein) for 6 weeks (CID1=LF thereafter) followed by 6 weeks of a high fat diet (40% carbohydrate, 45% fat, 15% protein) (CID2=HF1 after 1 week, and CID3=HF6 after 6 weeks of high fat diet). Both diets were isocloric. A physical examination, anthropometry (DEXA scan), and medical history were obtained and 12h fasted blood was collected at 8:00 a.m. on study days. Resting energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry) and physical activity level (PAL) was assessed by questionnaire and dietary food records for five days were completed before and during the study. Fasting blood levels of cytokines, chemokines and adipokines were determined by ELISA. The participants were instructed, trained and accompanied by an experienced nutritionist. Individual energy requirements were calculated based on participants REE and PAL. Participants received a list of 94 foods items and individual daily meal plans on how to exchange and combine these foods and energy intake was adjusted according to body weight if needed. Seven days before the LF, HF1 and HF6 examination days 70 percent of the food was provided to ensure standardized dietary patterns for all participants. A biopsy of periumbilical abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was performed on each CID for gene expression analysis.