Transcription profiling by array of Enterococcus faecalis v583 grown in microcosms exposed to artificial sunlight and compared to dark controls
ABSTRACT: Microcosms made of filtered seawater innoculated with Enterococcus faecalis v583 were exposed to artificial sunlight to investigate photoinactivation mechanisms. Microcosms exposed to artificial sunlight were compared to dark controls. Three experiments were done on three separate days. During every experiment, the light and dark microcosms were samples at the begining (time = 0 hours) and then at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours.
Project description:Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources.
Project description:Resistance to bile is a prerequisite property of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora. Bile acids are powerful detergents, and resistance to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has therefore often been considered relevant to studies of bile resistance. We have studied the effects of bovine bile (BB) and SDS on Enterococcus faecalis V583 by traditional growth studies and microarrays. Transcriptional responses were studied by time course experiments. In the presence of BB (V583-BB) or SDS (V583-SDS), 308 and 209 genes were identified as differentially expressed at one or more time points, respectively. In V583 treated with both BB and SDS (V583-BB-SDS), 254 genes showed differential expression. Detergents exert their toxic effects primarily on the microbial membrane. The enrichment of differentially transcribed genes that encode proteins with membrane-associated functions and/or locations indicates a major impact of all three treatments on the integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. Two gene clusters involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in V583-BB and V583-BB-SDS and partly induced in V583-SDS. Furthermore, two EmrB/QacA family drug resistance transporters and a vacuolar-type ATPase were induced in V583-BB and V583-BB-SDS. None of the putative bile salt hydrolase homologs in V583 showed differential expression during the bile treatments. The transcriptional profile of V583-BB-SDS was qualitatively more similar to the response in V583-BB than to that in V583-SDS, suggesting that the presence of bile suppresses the effects of SDS in V583-BB-SDS. The overall results presented here indicate that different mechanisms are involved in detergent resistance in E. faecalis.
Project description:The aim was to study the transcriptional profiling of the tdc cluster delection mutant E. faecalis V583 Î?tdc (non-tyramine producer) compared to the wild type strain E. faecalis V583 (tyramine producer). We compared the expression profile of the strains grown in M17 medium with glucose as carbon source and suplemented with tyrosine. E. faecalis V583 Î?tdc cells (test) compared with E. faecalis V583 cells (reference). Both strains grown in GM17 medium suplemented 15 mM tyrosine.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis possess numerous mobile elements that encode virulence and antibiotic resistance traits as well as new metabolic pathways, often constituting over one-quarter of the genome. It was of interest to determine how this large accretion of mobile elements affects competitive growth in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract consortium. We unexpectedly observed that the prototype clinical isolate strain V583 was actively killed by GI tract flora, whereas commensal enterococci flourished. It was found that killing of V583 resulted from lethal cross-talk between accumulated mobile elements and that this cross-talk was induced by a heptapeptide pheromone produced by native E. faecalis present in the fecal consortium. These results highlight two important aspects of the evolution of multidrug-resistant enterococci: (i) the accretion of mobile elements in E. faecalis V583 renders it incompatible with commensal strains, and (ii) because of this incompatibility, multidrug-resistant strains sharing features found in V583 cannot coexist with commensal strains. The accumulation of mobile elements in hospital isolates of enterococci can include those that are inherently incompatible with native flora, highlighting the importance of maintaining commensal populations as means of preventing colonization and subsequent infection by multidrug-resistant strains.
Project description:Irradiance from sunlight changes in a sinusoidal manner during the day, with irregular fluctuations due to clouds, and light-dark shifts at dawn and dusk are gradual. Experiments in controlled environments typically expose plants to constant irradiance during the day and abrupt light-dark transitions. To compare the effects on metabolism of sunlight versus artificial light regimes, Arabidopsis thaliana plants were grown in a naturally illuminated greenhouse around the vernal equinox, and in controlled environment chambers with a 12-h photoperiod and either constant or sinusoidal light profiles, using either white fluorescent tubes or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) tuned to a sunlight-like spectrum as the light source. Rosettes were sampled throughout a 24-h diurnal cycle for metabolite analysis. The diurnal metabolite profiles revealed that carbon and nitrogen metabolism differed significantly between sunlight and artificial light conditions. The variability of sunlight within and between days could be a factor underlying these differences. Pairwise comparisons of the artificial light sources (fluorescent versus LED) or the light profiles (constant versus sinusoidal) showed much smaller differences. The data indicate that energy-efficient LED lighting is an acceptable alternative to fluorescent lights, but results obtained from plants grown with either type of artificial lighting might not be representative of natural conditions.
Project description:The aim was to study the transcriptional profiling of the tdc and agdi clusters delection mutant E. faecalis V583 ΔtdcΔagdi (non-tyramine non-putrescine producer) compared to the wild type strain E. faecalis V583 (tyramine producer). We compared the expression profile of the strains grown in M17 medium with glucose as carbon source and suplemented with tyrosine. Overall design: E. faecalis V583 ΔtdcΔagdi cells (test) compared with E. faecalis V583 cells (reference). Both strains grown in GM17 medium.
Project description:The ideal host-associated genetic fecal marker would be capable of predicting the presence of specific pathogens of concern. Flowthrough freshwater microcosms containing mixed feces and inocula of the pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and adenovirus were placed at ambient temperature in the presence and absence of diurnal sunlight. The total Enterococcus DNA increased during the early periods (23 h) under sunlight exposure, even though cultivable Enterococcus and DNA in intact cells, as measured by propidium monoazide (PMA), decreased with first-order kinetics during the entire period. We found a significant difference in the decay of host-associated Bacteroidales cells between sunlight exposure and dark conditions (P value < 0.05), whereas the persistence of host-associated Bacteroidales DNA was comparable. The 2-log reduction times of adenovirus were 72 h for sunlight exposure and 99 h for dark conditions with similar decay rate constants (P value = 0.13). The persistences of fecal Bacteroidales cells and Campylobacter cells exposed to sunlight were similar, and host-associated Bacteroidales DNA and waterborne pathogen DNA were degraded at comparable rates (P values > 0.05). Overall, the ratio of quantitative PCR (qPCR) cycle threshold (C(T)) values with and without PMA treatment was indicative of the time elapsed since inoculation of the microcosm with (i) fecal material from different animal sources based on host-associated Bacteroidales and (ii) pure cultures of bacterial pathogens. The use of both PMA-qPCR and qPCR may yield more realistic information about recent sources of fecal contamination and result in improved prediction of waterborne pathogens and assessment of health risk.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and leading cause of health care-associated infections. Daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing of patients is generally regarded as an effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. It is likely that E. faecalis is frequently exposed to inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of CHG in clinical settings. The goal of this study was to investigate how the vancomycin-resistant strain E. faecalis V583 transcriptionally responds to and tolerates stress from CHG. We used transcriptome (microarray) analysis to identify genes upregulated by E. faecalis V583 in response to CHG. The genes efrE (EF2226) and efrF (EF2227), encoding a heterodimeric ABC transport system, were the most highly upregulated genes. efrEF expression was induced by CHG at concentrations several 2-fold dilutions below the MIC. Deletion of efrEF increased E. faecalis V583 susceptibility to CHG. We found that ChlR, a MerR-like regulator encoded by a sequence upstream of efrEF, mediated the CHG-dependent upregulation of efrEF, and deletion of chlR also increased chlorhexidine susceptibility. Overall, our study gives insight into E. faecalis stress responses to a commonly used antiseptic.
Project description:The species Enterococcus faecalis is able to catabolise the amino acid tyrosine into the biogenic amine tyramine by the tyrosine decarboxilase (TDC) pathway Ladero et al. (2012) . The TDC cluster comprises four genes: tyrS, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like gene; tdcA, which encodes the tyrosine decarboxylase; tyrP, a tyrosine/tyramine exchanger gene and nhaC-2, which encodes an Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and whose role in the tyramine biosynthesis remains unknown . In E. faecalis V583 the last three genes are co-transcribed as a single polycistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon, while tyrS is transcribed independently of the catabolic genes as a monocistronic mRNA . The catabolic operon is transcriptionally induced by tyrosine and acidic pH. On the opposite, the tyrS expression is repressed by tyrosine concentrations . In this work we report the transcriptional profiling of the TDC cluster deletion mutant (E. faecalis V583 ?TDC)  compared to the wild-type strain, both grown in M17 medium supplemented with tyrosine. The transcriptional profile data of TDC cluster-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession no. GSE77864.