Transcription profiling by array of CD4(+) T-cells from non-obese diabetes (NOD) strain with or without Idd6.3 candidate gene Arntl2 overexpression and from two NOD.C3H Idd6.3 congenic strains
ABSTRACT: The locus Idd6.3 influences type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetes (NOD) mouse via control of the activity of splenocytes and T cells. C3H alleles at Idd6.3 are more protective in diabetes transfer assays than NOD alleles. In this experiment we compare splenic CD4(+) T cells derived from two NOD.C3H Idd6.3 congenic strains (6.VIIIa, NOD alleles; 6.VIIIc, C3H alleles) and NOD CD4(+) T cells overexpressing the Idd6.3 candidate gene Arntl2 or not. The aim of the study is to evaluate genes and genetic networks under control of Idd6.3 and/or Arntl2.
Project description:With the goal of identifying changes in gene expression in CD4(+) T cells during the development of diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, we used DNA microarrays to analyze gene expression in CD4(+) T cells from the pancreatic draining lymph nodes of NOD/BDC 2.5 T cell receptor transgenic and WT NOD mice at different ages. At 4 and 6 weeks of age, we found up-regulation of a number of genes that are known to be induced by IFN-alpha. IFN-alpha levels and IFN-alpha-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells were increased in the PLNs of 3- to 4-week-old NOD mice. Moreover, blockade of IFN-alpha receptor 1 in NOD mice by a neutralizing antibody at 2-3 weeks of age significantly delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of type 1 diabetes, increased the relative number of immature dendritic cells in the PLNs, and enhanced the ability of spleen CD4(+) T cells to produce IL-4 and IL-10. These findings demonstrate that IFN-alpha in the PLNs is an essential initiator in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. Overall design: An all pairs experiment design type is where all labeled extracts are compared to every other labeled extract.
Project description:With the goal of identifying changes in gene expression in CD4(+) T cells during the development of diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, we used DNA microarrays to analyze gene expression in CD4(+) T cells from the pancreatic draining lymph nodes of NOD/BDC 2.5 T cell receptor transgenic and WT NOD mice at different ages. At 4 and 6 weeks of age, we found up-regulation of a number of genes that are known to be induced by IFN-alpha. IFN-alpha levels and IFN-alpha-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells were increased in the PLNs of 3- to 4-week-old NOD mice. Moreover, blockade of IFN-alpha receptor 1 in NOD mice by a neutralizing antibody at 2-3 weeks of age significantly delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of type 1 diabetes, increased the relative number of immature dendritic cells in the PLNs, and enhanced the ability of spleen CD4(+) T cells to produce IL-4 and IL-10. These findings demonstrate that IFN-alpha in the PLNs is an essential initiator in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. An all pairs experiment design type is where all labeled extracts are compared to every other labeled extract.
Project description:Most treatments that prevent autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice require intervention at early pathogenic stages, when insulitis is first developing. We tested whether dendritic cell (DC)-expanded, islet antigen-specific CD4+ CD25+ suppressor T cells could treat diabetes at later stages of disease, when most of the insulin-producing islet beta cells had been destroyed by infiltrating lymphocytes. CD4+ CD25+ CD62L+ regulatory T cells (T reg cells) from BDC2.5 T cell receptor transgenic mice were expanded with antigen-pulsed DCs and IL-2, and were then injected into NOD mice. A single dose of as few as 5x10(4) of these islet-specific T reg cells blocked diabetes development in prediabetic 13-wk-old NOD mice. The T reg cells also induced long-lasting reversal of hyperglycemia in 50% of mice in which overt diabetes had developed. Successfully treated diabetic mice had similar responses to glucose challenge compared with nondiabetic NOD mice. The successfully treated mice retained diabetogenic T cells, but also had substantially increased Foxp3+ cells in draining pancreatic lymph nodes. However, these Foxp3+ cells were derived from the recipient mice and not the injected T reg cells, suggesting a role for endogenous T reg cells in maintaining tolerance after treatment. Therefore, inoculation of DC-expanded, antigen-specific suppressor T cells has considerable efficacy in ameliorating ongoing diabetes in NOD mice.
Project description:Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice congenic for B10 derived genes in the Idd9 region of chromosome 4 are highly protected from the development of diabetes. In order to identify possible candidate genes within the Idd9 susceptibility region and possible downstream mediators of protection, we compared gene expression between NOD and Idd9 CD4+ T-cells. CD4+ T-cells with an activated phenotype (CD44-high/CD62L-low) were sorted from the pancreatic lymph nodes of female 8-week old mice. Mice were bred at Taconic farms and were line 905 (NOD.B10-Idd9 congenic) and line 6359 (NOD-like control strain with a B10 congenic region on chromosome 1 which does not modify diabetes incidence). Three replicate samples were prepared, each from four pooled pancreatic lymph nodes. CD4+CD44-highCD62L-low T-cells were sorted from each sample.
Project description:Human type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from the autoreactive destruction of pancreatic ? cells by T cells. Antigen presenting cells including dendritic cells and macrophages are required to activate and suppress antigen-specific T cells. It has been suggested that antigen uptake from live cells by dendritic cells via scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) may be important. However, the role of SR-A in autoimmune disease is unknown. In this study, SR-A-/- nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice showed significant attenuation of insulitis, lower levels of insulin autoantibodies, and suppression of diabetes development compared with NOD mice. We also found that diabetes progression in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with low-dose polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) was significantly accelerated compared with that in disease-resistant NOD mice treated with low-dose poly(I:C). In addition, injection of high-dose poly(I: C) to mimic an acute RNA virus infection significantly accelerated diabetes development in young SR-A-/- NOD mice compared with untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. Pathogenic cells including CD4+CD25+ activated T cells were increased more in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with poly(I:C) than in untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggested that viral infection might accelerate diabetes development even in diabetes-resistant subjects. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that diabetes progression was suppressed in SR-A-/- NOD mice and that acceleration of diabetes development could be induced in young mice by poly(I:C) treatment even in SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggest that SR-A on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells may play an unfavorable role in the steady state and a protective role in a mild infection. Our findings imply that SR-A may be an important target for improving therapeutic strategies for type 1 diabetes.
Project description:FoxP3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in the maintenance of peripheral self-tolerance, and it has been suggested that diabetes-susceptible nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are defective in the generation and numbers of Tregs. We found thymic selection of Tregs to be under genetic control. Fetal thymic organ cultures on the NOD background required 3- to 10-fold more antigen than corresponding cultures on the B6 background for optimal induction of Tregs, but once the threshold for induction was reached the NOD background yielded close to 10-fold more Tregs. This increased selection of Tregs was also found in nontransgenic NOD mice in fetal through adult stages. This trait did not map to the MHC, idd3, or the chromosome 3 (Chr3) regions that control clonal deletion, but mainly to two regions on Chr1 and Chr11. Thus, NOD mice do not have a global defect in the generation or maintenance of Tregs; if anything, they show the opposite.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes in both humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice results from autoreactive T cell destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Cure of type 1 diabetes may require both reversal of autoimmunity and regeneration of beta cells. Induction of chimerism via allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has been shown to reestablish tolerance in both prediabetic and diabetic NOD mice. However, it is unclear whether this therapy augments beta cell regeneration. Furthermore, this procedure usually requires total body irradiation conditioning of recipients. The toxicity of total body irradiation conditioning and potential for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) limit the application of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for treating type 1 diabetes. Here we report that injection of donor bone marrow and CD4+ T cell-depleted spleen cells induced chimerism without causing GVHD in overtly diabetic NOD mice conditioned with anti-CD3/CD8 and that induction of chimerism in new-onset diabetic NOD mice led to elimination of insulitis, regeneration of host beta cells, and reversal of hyperglycemia. Therefore, this radiation-free GVHD preventive approach for induction of chimerism may represent a viable means for reversing type 1 diabetes.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells and is partly caused by deficiencies in the Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) compartment. Conversely, therapies that increase Treg function can prevent autoimmune diabetes in animal models. The majority of Tregs develop in the thymus (tTregs), but a proportion of Foxp3+ Tregs is generated in the periphery (pTregs) from Foxp3- CD4+ T-cell precursors. Whether pTregs play a distinct role in T1D has not yet been explored. We report here that pTregs are a key modifier of disease in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for T1D. We generated NOD mice deficient for the Foxp3 enhancer CNS1 involved in pTreg induction. We show that CNS1 knockout decreased the frequency of pTregs and increased the risk of diabetes. Our results show that pTregs fulfill an important non-redundant function in the prevention of beta cell autoimmunity that causes T1D.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The endopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) has been shown to NH2-terminally truncate incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, thus ablating their ability to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Increasing the circulating levels of incretins through administration of DPP-IV inhibitors has therefore been introduced as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitor treatment has also been shown to preserve islet mass in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. The current study was initiated to define the effects of the DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin (MK0431) on transplanted islet survival in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, an autoimmune type 1 diabetes model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Effects of MK0431 on islet graft survival in diabetic NOD mice were determined with metabolic studies and micropositron emission tomography imaging, and its underlying molecular mechanisms were assessed. RESULTS: Treatment of NOD mice with MK0431 before and after islet transplantation resulted in prolongation of islet graft survival, whereas treatment after transplantation alone resulted in small beneficial effects compared with nontreated controls. Subsequent studies demonstrated that MK0431 pretreatment resulted in decreased insulitis in diabetic NOD mice and reduced in vitro migration of isolated splenic CD4+ T-cells. Furthermore, in vitro treatment of splenic CD4+ T-cells with DPP-IV resulted in increased migration and activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Rac1. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with MK0431 therefore reduced the effect of autoimmunity on graft survival partially by decreasing the homing of CD4+ T-cells into pancreatic beta-cells through a pathway involving cAMP/PKA/Rac1 activation.
Project description:The transcription factor T-bet (Tbx21) is critical for Th1 polarization of CD4(+) T cells. Genetic deletion of Tbx21 can cause either exacerbation or attenuation of different autoimmune diseases in animal models. In the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, genetic deletion of the Ifng or the Il12b (IL-12p40) genes, which are both critical Th1 cytokines, does not reduce the incidence of autoimmune diabetes. These results suggest that autoimmune diabetes in the NOD may not be a Th1-driven disease. However, we report that Tbx21 deficiency in the NOD mouse completely blocks insulitis and diabetes due to defects both in the initiation of the anti-islet immune response and in the function of CD4(+) effector T cells. We find defective priming of naive islet-reactive T cells by the innate immune system in Tbx21(-/-) animals. By contrast to naive cells, activated islet-reactive BDC2.5 TCR-transgenic T cells do not require Tbx21 in recipient animals for efficient adoptive transfer of diabetes. However, when these BDC2.5 TCR-transgenic effector cells lack Tbx21, they are less effective at entering the pancreas and promoting diabetes than Tbx21(+/+) cells. Tbx21(-/-) regulatory T cells function normally in vitro and diabetes can be restored in Tbx21(-/-) mice by reducing regulatory T cell numbers. Thus, the absence of diabetes in the NOD.Tbx21(-/-) is due to intrinsic defects in both T cells and cells of the innate immune system paired with the relative preservation of regulatory T cell function.