Comparative genomic hybridization by array of genomic DNA from 18 cases of EBV+ DLBCL, 21 cases of EBV- DLBCL, and 13 cases of nonneoplastic tonsillar tissue
ABSTRACT: Copy number analysis was performed on EBV+ DLBCL samples compared with EBV- DLBCL. We analyzed the genomic DNA from 18 cases of EBV+ DLBCL, 21 cases of EBV- DLBCL, and 13 cases of nonneoplastic tonsillar tissues using OncoScan FFPE Express 2.0 (MIP). No technical replication were done.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly has been included in the 2008 WHO classification of lymphoma as a new provisional entity. EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly is newly classified due to the main occurrence usually in patients of older than 50-year-old. This study was performed in 91 DLBCL patients from January 2002 to December 2012 in Catholic university of St. Vincent Hospital. Age distribution of the patients was 14~87-year-old. Specimens were collected from lymph nodes (n = 45) and extra-lymph nodes (n = 46). EBV encoded small RNA1 in situ hybridization (EBER1-ISH) known as a standard method for the diagnosis of DLBCL. In this study, nested PCR of DNA polymerase gene and EBER PCR were conducted to detect EBV. Presence of EBV was indicated in 3 samples (3.30%) by EBER-ISH, 26 samples (28.57%) by nPCR, and 3 samples (3.30%) by EBER PCR. The concordant results were obtained from EBER1-ISH and EBER PCR. Two samples were classified as EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly among 91 DLBCL patients. Previously, the incidence rate of DLBCL of the elderly in Asia has been reported as 5~11%, but the result in this study showed a slightly lower incidence rate. To our knowledge, this is the first report on EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly in Suwon area, Korea. EBER1-ISH and EBER PCR developed in this study may be helpful in classification of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly in future.
Project description:NKL homeobox genes encode developmental transcription factors regulating basic processes in cell differentiation. According to their physiological expression pattern in early hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis, particular members of this homeobox gene subclass constitute an NKL-code. B-cell specific NKL-code genes generate a regulatory network and their deregulation is implicated in B-cell lymphomagenesis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects B-cells and influences the activity of signalling pathways including JAK/STAT and several genes encoding developmental regulators. Therefore, EBV-infection impacts the pathogenesis and the outcome of B-cell malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we isolated EBV-positive and EBV-negative subclones from the DLBCL derived cell line DOHH-2. These subclones served as models to investigate the role of EBV in deregulation of the B-cell specific NKL-code members HHEX, HLX, MSX1 and NKX6-3. We showed that the EBV-encoded factors LMP1 and LMP2A activated the expression of HLX via STAT3. HLX in turn repressed NKX6-3, SPIB and IL4R which normally mediate plasma cell differentiation. In addition, HLX repressed the pro-apoptotic factor BCL2L11/BIM and hence supported cell survival. Thus, EBV aberrantly activated HLX in DLBCL, thereby disturbing both B-cell differentiation and apoptosis. The results of our study appreciate the pathogenic role of EBV in NKL homeobox gene deregulation and B-cell malignancies.
Project description:PRDM1/Blimp1, a master regulator of B-cell terminal differentiation, has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in aggressive lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It has been shown in DLBCL and Hodgkin lymphoma that PRDM1 is downregulated by cellular microRNAs. In this study, we identify the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) microRNA (miRNA), EBV-miR-BHRF1-2, as a viral miRNA regulator of PRDM1. EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 repressed luciferase reporter activity by specific interaction with the seed region within the PRDM1 3' untranslated region. EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 inhibition upregulated PRDM1 protein expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), supporting a role of miR-BHRF1-2 in PRDM1 downregulation in vivo. Discordance of PRDM1 messenger RNA and protein expressions is associated with high EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 levels in LCLs and primary post-transplant EBV-positive DLBCL. Enforced expression of PRDM1-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in LCL cells. Inhibition of EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 negatively regulates cell cycle and decreases expression of SCARNA20, a small nucleolar RNA that is also downregulated by PRDM1 overexpression. The interaction between EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 and PRDM1 may be one of the mechanisms by which EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 promotes EBV lymphomagenesis. Our results support the potential of EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 as a therapeutic target in EBV-associated lymphoma.
Project description:The clinicopathological features and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection status of lymphoma in children and adolescents in South China is under-researched. South China is a well-known high-incidence area of EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.A cohort of 662 consecutive children and adolescents' lymphomas was retrospectively analyzed and Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs (EBERs) in situ hybridization was performed to detect the EBV infection.The majority (501/662, 75.7%) of lymphomas in children and adolescents was Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). One hundred sixty one cases (24.3%) were Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Of the NHL, precursor cell lymphoma, mature B-cell lymphoma and peripheral T/NK-cell lymphoma accounted for 32.0%, 41.1% and 26.9% respectively. The five common subtypes were lymphoblastic lymphoma (32.0%), Burkitt lymphoma (BL) (21.0%), anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) (14.2%), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (13.8%) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL) (6.2%). EBV infection was detected in 58.9% classical Hodgkin lymphomas (CHLs), 21.4% mature B-cell lymphomas and 52.4% peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas. Moreover, EBV was associated with high grade NHL including ENKTCL (100.0%), BL (30.5%) and DLBCL (17.6%).The high proportion of peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas in children and adolescents in South China are presented in this study and compared to western countries due to the high percentage of ENKTCL. ENKTCL is firmly associated with EBV infection, while more than half of HL, a portion of BL and DLBCL are related to EBV infection. This study conclusively demonstrates that EBV infection is more prevalent in children and adolescents with lymphomas in South China compared to western countries.
Project description:Plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA measurement has established prognostic utility in EBV-driven lymphomas, where it serves as a circulating tumor DNA marker. The value of plasma EBV measurement may be amplified in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where advanced imaging and molecular technologies for risk stratification are not typically available. However, its utility in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is less certain, given that only a subset of DLBCLs are EBV-positive. To explore this possibility, we measured plasma EBV DNA at diagnosis in a cohort of patients with DLBCL in Malawi. High plasma EBV DNA at diagnosis (?3.0 log10 copies/mL) was associated with decreased overall survival (OS) (P = .048). When stratified by HIV status, the prognostic utility of baseline plasma EBV DNA level was restricted to HIV-positive patients. Unexpectedly, most HIV-positive patients with high plasma EBV DNA at diagnosis had EBV-negative lymphomas, as confirmed by multiple methods. Even in these HIV-positive patients with EBV-negative DLBCL, high plasma EBV DNA remained associated with shorter OS (P = .014). These results suggest that EBV reactivation in nontumor cells is a poor prognostic finding even in HIV-positive patients with convincingly EBV-negative DLBCL, extending the potential utility of EBV measurement as a valuable and implementable prognostic marker in SSA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV-pos DLBCL) is a recently identified entity. Data regarding outcome to frontline immuno-chemotherapy are conflicting. Although the prognostic impact of the tumour microenvironment (TME) in EBV-neg DLBCL is well-established, it remains untested whether the TME influences survival in EBV-pos DLBCL. There are no data with new digital gene expression technologies that simultaneously interrogate the virus, B cells and the tumour microenvironment (TME). METHODS:We used the NanoString™ platform in a population-based cohort of 433 patients to establish if the technology could detect EBV in the tumour biopsies and to investigate the influence that EBV has on the complex tumour microenvironment of DLBCL. RESULTS:Incidence of EBV-pos DLBCL was 6.9% with 5-year survival of 65% vs 82% in EBV-neg DLBCL (P = 0.018). EBV-pos tissues had similar expression of T-cell genes compared to EBV-neg DLBCL but higher levels of the antigen-presenting molecule B2M. This was countered by elevated PD-L1, PD-L2, LAG3 and TIM3 immune checkpoints and a higher CD163/CD68 "M2" macrophage score. CONCLUSION:In EBV-pos DLBCL, the TME is immuno-tolerogenic and may explain the poor outcomes seen in this subtype of DLBCL.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+ DLBCL) is a rare type of lymphoma with a high incidence in elderly patients, poor drug response, and unfavorable prognosis. Despite advances in genomic profiling and precision medicine in DLBCL, EBV+ DLBCL remain poorly characterized and understood. We include 236 DLBCL patients for EBV-encoded mRNA (EBER) in situ hybridization detection and analyzed 9 EBV+ and 6 EBV negative cases by next-generation sequencing (NGS). We then performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to analyze chromosome rearrangements and gene expressions in 22 EBV+ and 30 EBV negative cases. The EBER results showed a 9.3% (22/236) positive rate. The NGS results revealed recurrent alterations in MYC and RHOA, components of apoptosis and NF-?B pathways. The most frequently mutated genes in EBV+ DLBCL were MYC (3/9; 33.3%), RHOA (3/9; 33.3%), PIM1 (2/9; 22.2%), MEF2B (2/9; 22.2%), MYD88 (2/9; 22.2%), and CD79B (2/9; 22.2%) compared with KMT2D (4/6; 66.7%), CREBBP (3/6; 50.0%), PIM1 (2/6; 33.3%), TNFAIP3 (2/6; 33.3%), and BCL2 (2/6; 33.3%) in EBV-negative DLBCL. MYC and KMT2D alterations stood out the most differently mutated genes between the two groups. FISH detection displayed a lower rearrangement rate in EBV+ cohort. Furthermore, KMT2D expression was highly expressed and associated with poor survival in both cohorts. MYC was only overexpressed and related to an inferior prognosis in the EBV+ DLBCL cohort. In summary, we depicted a distinct mutation profile for EBV+ and EBV-negative DLBCL and validated the differential expression of KMT2D and MYC with potential prognostic influence, thereby providing new perspectives into the pathogenesis and precision medicine of DLBCL.
Project description:The contribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to the development of specific types of benign lymphoproliferations and malignant lymphomas has been extensively studied since the discovery of the virus over the last 50 years. The importance and better understanding of the EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of B, T or natural killer (NK) cell type has resulted in the recognition of new entities like EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer or the addition of chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection in the revised 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) lymphoma classification. In this article, we review the definitions, morphology, pathogenesis, and evolving concepts of the various EBV-associated disorders including EBV+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL, NOS), EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer, DLBCL associated with chronic inflammation, fibrin-associated DLBCL, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, the EBV+ T and NK-cell LPD of childhood, aggressive NK leukaemia, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and the new provisional entity of primary EBV+ nodal T- or NK-cell lymphoma. The current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas that can be EBV-associated including Burkitt lymphoma, plasmablastic lymphoma and classic Hodgkin lymphoma will be also explored.
Project description:The clinical features of EBV-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) indicate a poorer prognosis than EBV-negative DLBCL. Currently, there is no efficacious drug for EBV-positive DLBCL. The cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) has been reported to be pro-apoptotic in DLBCL cell lines and is being explored as a new therapeutic strategy for this type of lymphomas. However, our previous studies showed that IL-21 stimulation of EBV-positive DLBCL cell lines leads to increased proliferation. Here, analysis of a rare clinical sample of EBV-positive DLBCL, in combination with a NOD/SCID mouse xenograft model, confirmed the effect of IL-21 on the proliferation of EBV-positive DLBCL cells. Using RNA-sequencing, we identified the pattern of differentially-expressed genes following IL-21 treatment and verified the expression of key genes at the protein level using western blotting. We found that IL-21 upregulates expression of the host MYC and AP-1 (composed of related Jun and Fos family proteins) and STAT3 phosphorylation, as well as expression of the viral LMP-1 protein. These proteins are known to promote the G1/S phase transition to accelerate cell cycle progression. Furthermore, in NOD/SCID mouse xenograft model experiments, we found that IL-21 treatment increases glucose uptake and angiogenesis in EBV-positive DLBCL tumours. Although more samples are needed to validate these observations, our study reconfirms the adverse effects of IL-21 on EBV-positive DLBCL, which has implications for the drug development of DLBCL.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persistently infects more than 90% of the human population and is etiologically linked to several B cell malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Despite its growth transforming properties, most immune-competent individuals control EBV infection throughout their lives. EBV encodes various oncogenes, and of the 6 latency-associated EBV-encoded nuclear antigens, only EBNA3B is completely dispensable for B cell transformation in vitro. Here, we report that infection with EBV lacking EBNA3B leads to aggressive, immune-evading monomorphic DLBCL-like tumors in NOD/SCID/?c-/- mice with reconstituted human immune system components. Infection with EBNA3B-knockout EBV (EBNA3BKO) induced expansion of EBV-specific T cells that failed to infiltrate the tumors. EBNA3BKO-infected B cells expanded more rapidly and secreted less T cell-chemoattractant CXCL10, reducing T cell recruitment in vitro and T cell-mediated killing in vivo. B cell lines from 2 EBV-positive human lymphomas encoding truncated EBNA3B exhibited gene expression profiles and phenotypic characteristics similar to those of tumor-derived lines from the humanized mice, including reduced CXCL10 secretion. Screening EBV-positive DLBCL, HL, and BL human samples identified additional EBNA3B mutations. Thus, EBNA3B is a virus-encoded tumor suppressor whose inactivation promotes immune evasion and virus-driven lymphomagenesis.