Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are unique in that they have the capacity to differentiate into all of the cell types in the body. We know a lot about the complex transcriptional control circuits that maintain the naive pluripotent state under self-renewing conditions but comparatively less about how cells exit from this state in response to differentiation stimuli. Here, we examined the role of Otx2 in this process in mouse ESCs and demonstrate that it plays a leading role in remodeling the gene re ...[more]
Project description:Mutations in chromatin modifying proteins are associated with a variety of cancers. These mutations may result in characteristic patterns of accessible chromatin indicative of altered nucleosome positioning and depletion at regulatory elements. We describe the adaptation of Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE), a chemical method to enrich for nucleosome-depleted genomic regions, as a high-throughput, automated assay. We applied this method in a screen of epigenetically targeted small molecules by evaluating regions of aberrant nucleosome depletion mediated by EWS-FLI1, the chimeric transcription factor critical for the bone and soft tissue tumor Ewing Sarcoma. We identified a novel compound, UNC0621, which exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in chromatin accessibility, decreased Ewing Sarcoma cell viability, and inhibited anchorage-independent growth. We demonstrate that chromatin accessibility can be exploited for drug discovery efforts offering the advantage that it does not depend on the a priori selection of a single molecular target. Identified compounds can then be used for biological target discovery and potential therapeutic validation. HT-FAIRE was performed on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) in duplicate. No reference/control experiment is necessary.
Project description:We report the open chromatin landscape in primary human macrophages and foam cells using FAIRE-seq CD14+ monocytes were isolated from the blood of 3 healthy volunteers. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages by culture for 7 days with 50ng/ml macrophage colony stimulating factor and then treated for 48 hours with either oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) to induce foam cell formation or with a control buffer that lacked oxLDL. The resulting six samples were then subjected to FAIRE-seq using an established protocol (Simon JM, Giresi PG, Davis IJ, Lieb JD. Using formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE) to isolate active regulatory DNA. Nature protocols 2012;7:256-67).
Project description:Chromatin accessibility is an important functional genomics phenotype that influences transcription factor binding and gene expression. Genome-scale technologies allow chromatin accessibility to be mapped with high-resolution, facilitating detailed analyses into the genetic architecture and evolution of chromatin structure within and between species. We performed Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements sequencing (FAIRE-Seq) to map chromatin accessibility in two parental haploid yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus and their diploid hybrid. We show that although broad-scale characteristics of the chromatin landscape are well conserved between these species, accessibility is significantly different for 947 regions upstream of genes that are enriched for GO terms such as intracellular transport and protein localization exhibit. We also develop new statistical methods to investigate the genetic architecture of variation in chromatin accessibility between species, and find that cis effects are more common and of greater magnitude than trans effects. Interestingly, we find that cis and trans effects at individual genes are often negatively correlated, suggesting widespread compensatory evolution to stabilize levels of chromatin accessibility. Finally, we demonstrate that the relationship between chromatin accessibility and gene expression levels is complex, and a significant proportion of differences in chromatin accessibility might be functionally benign. There are 20 samples in total. These consist of 10 FAIRE-seq samples, specifically 6 haploid samples, S. cerevisiae strain UWOPS05_217_3 replicates 1 and 2, S. cerevisiae strain DBVPG1373 replicates 1 and 2, and S. paradoxus strain CBS432 replicates 1 and 2. There are also 4 diploid hybrid samples, hybrid between S. cerevisiae strain UWOPS05_217_3 and S. paradoxus strain CBS432 replicates 1 and 2, and the hybrid between S. cerevisiae strain DBVPG1373 and S. paradoxus strain CBS432 replicates 1 and 2. There are also RNA-seq samples for each of these 10 samples.
Project description:Comprehensive sequencing of human cancers has identified recurrent mutations in genes encoding chromatin regulatory proteins. For clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), three of the five commonly mutated genes encode the chromatin regulators PBRM1, SETD2, and BAP1. How these mutations alter the chromatin landscape and transcriptional program in ccRCC or other cancers is not understood. Here, we identified alterations in chromatin organization and transcript profiles associated with mutations in chromatin regulators in a large cohort of primary human kidney tumors. By associating variation in chromatin organization with mutations in SETD2, which encodes the enzyme responsible for H3K36 trimethylation, we found that changes in chromatin accessibility occurred primarily within actively transcribed genes. This increase in chromatin accessibility was linked with widespread alterations in RNA processing, including intron retention and aberrant splicing, affecting approximately 25% of all expressed genes. Further, decreased nucleosome occupancy proximal to misspliced exons was observed in tumors lacking H3K36me3. These results directly link mutations in SETD2 to chromatin accessibility changes and RNA processing defects in cancer. Detecting the functional consequences of specific mutations in chromatin regulatory proteins in primary human samples could ultimately inform the therapeutic application of an emerging class of chromatin-targeted compounds. Additional file: MutationAnnotation.txt- contains sample ID, location of variant on hg19, reference allele, alternate allele, reference depth, alternate depth, frequency, confidence score, gene symbol, mutation type, mutation location (transcript ID and exon number, if applicable), and amino acid change.
Project description:Poor outcomes in diabetic patients are observed across a range of human tumors, suggesting that cancer cells develop unique characteristics under diabetic conditions. Cancer cells exposed to hyperglycemic insults acquire permanent aggressive traits of tumor growth, even after a return to euglycemic conditions. Comparative genome-wide mapping of hyperglycemia-specific open chromatin regions and concomitant mRNA expression profiling revealed that neuregulin-1 gene, an established endogenous ligand for the HER3 receptor, is activated through a putative distal enhancer. Our findings highlight the targeted inhibition of NRG1-HER3 pathways as a potential target for the treatment breast cancer patients with associated diabetes Chromatin was extracted from hyperglycemic (HyG) and euglycemic (Control) cancer cells; FAIRE DNA and input DNA from each sample were used to generate libraries for single end sequencing on the the SOLiD 4 HQ system
Project description:The goal of this study was to identify chromatin regulatory sites by FAIRE-seq under conditions of basal and increased dosage of transcription factor SF-1 in the H295R human adrenocortical tumor cell line. 4 samples: input DNA in basal SF-1 expression conditions - FAIRE-seq in basal SF-1 expression conditions - input DNA in SF-1 overexpression conditions - FAIRE-seq in SF-1 overexpression conditions