Induced Hepatocyte-Like Cells with Interferon timecourse
ABSTRACT: This experiment investigates the transcriptional effect of Interferon Alpha or Interferon Lambda upon Induced Hepatocyte-Like Cells (iHLCs). Peginterferon lambda-1a (Lambda) is a type III interferon that acts through a unique receptor complex expressed primarily on hepatocytes. In Phase 2b clinical studies, a combined regimen of Lambda with ribavirin (RBV) was associated with more rapid declines in viral load compared to a peginterferon alfa (PEGASYS; alfa) plus RBV regimen. This correlated with improved virologic response rates at Weeks 4 and 12 of treatment. To gain insight into the potential molecular mechanisms of these early robust responses with Lambda, we investigated the effects of alfa and Lambda on transcription in iHLCs obtained from Cellular Dynamics.. These samples are a subset of a larger experiment to be published at a later date.
Project description:Peginterferon Lambda was being developed as an alternative to alfa interferon for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We compared peginterferon Lambda-1a plus ribavirin (Lambda/RBV) and Lambda/RBV plus daclatasvir (DCV; pangenotypic NS5A inhibitor) with peginterferon alfa-2a plus RBV (alfa/RBV) in treatment-naive patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection.In this multicenter, double-blind, phase 3 randomized controlled trial, patients were assigned 2:2:1 to receive 24 weeks of Lambda/RBV, 12 weeks of Lambda/RBV + DCV, or 24 weeks of alfa/RBV. The primary outcome measure was sustained virologic response at post-treatment Week 12 (SVR12).Overall, 874 patients were treated: Lambda/RBV, n = 353; Lambda/RBV + DCV, n = 349; alfa/RBV, n = 172. Patients were 65 % white and 33 % Asian, 57 % male, with a mean age of 47 years; 52 % were infected with genotype 2 (6 % cirrhotic) and 48 % with genotype 3 (9 % cirrhotic). In the Lambda/RBV + DCV group, 83 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 78.5, 86.5) achieved SVR12 (90 % genotype 2, 75 % genotype 3) whereas SVR12 was achieved by 68 % (95 % CI 63.1, 72.9) with Lambda/RBV (72 % genotype 2, 64 % genotype 3) and 73 % (95 % CI 66.6, 79.9) with peginterferon alfa/RBV (74 % genotype 2, 73 % genotype 3). Lambda/RBV + DCV was associated with lower incidences of flu-like symptoms, hematological abnormalities, and discontinuations due to adverse events compared with alfa/RBV.The 12-week regimen of Lambda/RBV + DCV was superior to peginterferon alfa/RBV in the combined population of treatment-naive patients with genotype 2 or 3 infection, with an improved tolerability and safety profile compared with alfa/RBV.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase 3 study was conducted comparing the efficacy and safety of peginterferon lambda-1a (Lambda)/ribavirin (RBV)/telaprevir (TVR) vs. peginterferon alfa-2a (Alfa)/RBV/TVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-1 (GT-1) infection. METHODS:Patients (treatment-naïve or relapsers on prior Alfa/RBV treatment) were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive Lambda/RBV/TVR or Alfa/RBV/TVR. Total duration of treatment was either 24 or 48 weeks (response-guided treatment), with TVR administered for the first 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a sustained virologic response at post treatment week 12 (SVR12), which was tested for noninferiority of Lambda/RBV/TVR. RESULTS:A total of 838 patients were enrolled, and 617 were treated; 411 and 206 patients received Lambda/RBV/TVR and Alfa/RBV/TVR, respectively. The majority of patients were treatment-naïve, with HCV GT-1b and a high baseline viral load (≥800,000 IU/mL). Less than 10% of patients had cirrhosis (Lambda, 7.5%; Alfa, 6.8%). Lambda/RBV/TVR did not meet the criterion for noninferiority (lower bound of the treatment difference interval was -12.3%); the SVR12 in all patients (modified intent-to-treat) was 76.2% in the Lambda arm and 82.0% in the Alfa arm. Overall, the frequency of adverse events in each arm was comparable (Lambda, 91.7%; Alfa, 97.1%). As expected based on the safety profile of the 2 interferons, there were more hepatobiliary events observed in the Lambda arm and more hematologic events in the Alfa arm. CONCLUSIONS:In this comparison of Lambda/RBV/TVR and Alfa/RBV/TVR in patients who were treatment-naïve or had relapsed on prior Alfa/RBV treatment, Lambda failed to demonstrate noninferiority based on SVR12 results. Treatment with Lambda/RBV/TVR was associated with a higher incidence of relapse. More patients discontinued Lambda/RBV/TVR treatment during the first 4 weeks of study treatment, mainly due to hepatobiliary-related events, and more Lambda patients were lost to follow-up.
Project description:Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated to affect approximately 3% of the world's population and cause 350,000 deaths each year. For a number of years, the standard of care has been combination therapy with recombinant alfa interferons-originally as native proteins but more recently as polyethyleneglycol-modified derivatives-and ribavirin, with the recent addition of an NS3 protease inhibitor for HCV genotype 1. However, therapeutic alfa interferons are associated with a significant burden of treatment-limiting adverse events, including musculoskeletal and influenza-like symptoms, hematologic cytopenias, autoimmune disease, fatigue, and other neurologic events. In 2003, a team at ZymoGenetics (now a fully owned subsidiary of Bristol-Myers Squibb) and a second, independent group simultaneously identified a new class of interferons-the type III lambda interferons-with near-identical activity to the type I alfa interferons in hepatocytes but with an unrelated and less ubiquitous receptor. Subsequent evaluation of the type III interferon system demonstrated antiviral activity against HCV in vitro with limited activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and other nonhepatocyte cell types, supporting its development as a potentially better-tolerated therapy for viral hepatitis. Peginterferon lambda-1a (Lambda) is an investigational type III therapeutic agent originally developed at ZymoGenetics that is currently in Phase 3 studies for the treatment of HCV. In this review, we describe the selection of the Lambda molecule and its preclinical and early clinical development, and how the resulting data have helped to establish the differentiated safety profile for Lambda-with fewer influenza-like and musculoskeletal symptoms and less hematologic toxicity than the alfa interferons-that was seen in later studies.
Project description:The management of patients with chronic hepatitis C who have relapsed or failed to respond to interferon based therapies is an important issue facing hepatologists.We evaluated the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) plus ribavirin in this population by conducting a multicentre open label study.Data from adults with detectable serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA who had not responded or had relapsed after previous conventional interferon or conventional interferon/ribavirin combination therapy were analysed.Patients were retreated with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) 180 microg/week plus ribavirin 800 mg/day for 24 or 48 weeks at the investigators' discretion. The study was conceived before the optimal dose of ribavirin (1000/1200 mg/day) for patients with genotype 1 was known. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response (SVR), defined as undetectable HCV RNA (<50 IU/ml) after 24 weeks of follow up. The analysis was conducted by intention to treat.A total of 312 patients (212 non-responders, 100 relapsers) were included. Of these, 28 patients were treated for 24 weeks and 284 for 48 weeks. Baseline characteristics between non-responders and relapsers were similar although more non-responders had genotype 1 infection (87% v 69%). Overall SVR rates were 23% (48/212) for non-responders and 41% (41/100) for relapsers. When data were analysed by genotype, SVR rates were 24% (61/253) in genotype 1 and 47% (28/59) in genotype 2/3.These results in a large patient cohort demonstrate that it is possible to cure a proportion of previous non-responders and relapsers by retreating with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) plus ribavirin.
Project description:The efficacy, tolerability, and safety of the prophylactic treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) after liver transplantation (LT) with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin are not known. LT recipients with HCV were randomized to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin treatment or observation 10 to 26 weeks post-LT. Prophylaxis patients received peginterferon alfa-2a (135 ?g/week for 4 weeks and then 180 ?g/week for 44 weeks) plus ribavirin (the initial dose of 400 mg/day was escalated to 1200 mg/day). Observation patients received the same regimen only upon significant HCV recurrence (histological activity index ? 3 and/or fibrosis score ? 2). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with histological evidence of significant HCV recurrence 120 weeks after randomization. In all, 115 patients were randomized (prophylaxis arm, n = 55; observation arm, n = 60). Sustained virological response was achieved by 12 of 54 prophylaxis patients (22.2%) and by 3 of 14 observation patients who switched to treatment (21.4%). On an intent-to-treat basis, significant HCV recurrence at 120 weeks was similar in the prophylaxis (61.8%) and observation arms (65.0%, P = 0.725). The patient and graft survival rates and the rates of biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection were similar in the 2 study arms. Approximately 70% of the treated patients in both arms had at least one dose reduction for safety reasons. The most common adverse event leading to treatment withdrawal was anemia. Because of the safety profile of peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin and the lack of a clear benefit in terms of HCV recurrence and patient or graft survival, this study does not support the routine use of prophylactic antiviral therapy.
Project description:The clinical efficacy of a pegylated form of human lambda 1 interferon (IFN-?1; also referred to herein as lambda) has been demonstrated in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) representing genotypes 1 through 4. In these proof-of-concept studies, lambda showed an improved safety profile compared to the pegylated form of alpha interferon (referred to herein as alfa). In the study described in this report, an assessment of the in vitro antiviral activity of type III IFNs toward different HCV replicons revealed that the unpegylated recombinant form of IFN-?1 (rIFN-?1) exerted the most robust effect, while rIFN-?3 exhibited greater activity than rIFN-?2. More importantly, cross-resistance to rIFN-?1 was not observed in replicon cell lines known to have reduced susceptibility to investigational direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents targeting the essential HCV nonstructural protein NS3, NS5A, or NS5B. When combined with either rIFN-?, the NS3 protease inhibitor (NS3 PI) asunaprevir (ASV), the NS5A replication complex inhibitor (NS5A RCI) daclatasvir (DCV), or the NS5B polymerase site I inhibitor (NS5B I) BMS-791325, rIFN-?1 displayed a mixture of additive and synergistic effects. In three-drug combination studies, inclusion of lambda with ASV and DCV also yielded additive to synergistic effects. In line with these observations, it was demonstrated that a regimen that used a combination of rIFN-?1 with one or two DAAs was superior to an IFN-free regimen in clearing HCV RNA in genotype 1a cell lines representing wild-type and NS3 protease inhibitor-resistant sequences. Overall, these data support further clinical development of lambda as part of alternative combination treatments with DAAs for patients chronically infected with HCV.
Project description:Background:Flu-like symptoms are common adverse events associated with interferon beta relapsing multiple sclerosis therapies. Objectives:To evaluate the incidence and severity of flu-like symptoms after transitioning from non-pegylated interferons to peginterferon beta-1a and assess flu-like symptom mitigation using naproxen. Methods:ALLOW was a phase 3b open-label study in relapsing multiple sclerosis patients. Patients had received non-pegylated interferon for 4 or more months immediately before beginning a 4-week screening period. At baseline, patients switched to peginterferon beta-1a and were randomly assigned (1:1) to continue their current flu-like symptoms management regimen or start twice-daily naproxen 500 mg for 8 weeks. Patients then switched to their preferred regimen and were followed for 48 weeks in total. Results:Of 201 patients, 89.6% did not experience new/worsening flu-like symptoms during their first 8 weeks on peginterferon beta-1a. Flu-like symptom severity remained low in current-regimen and naproxen patients, with no significant between-group differences. Median flu-like symptom duration per injection was 3.2 hours longer with peginterferon beta-1a versus prior interferon, but the 4-week cumulative duration was reduced 49-78%. No new safety signals were identified. Conclusion:Most patients who switched from non-pegylated interferon to peginterferon beta-1a did not experience new/worsening flu-like symptoms. Flu-like symptom duration per injection increased, but the cumulative duration significantly decreased. These data may inform flu-like symptom management guidance.
Project description:The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with a first-generation protease inhibitor (PI; boceprevir, telaprevir) plus peginterferon alfa-2a or -2b plus ribavirin, and dual therapy (peginterferon alfa-2a or -2b plus ribavirin) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in routine clinical practice.PegBase was an international, prospective, observational study in which 4441 patients with CHC were enrolled in 27 countries. This analysis focuses on results in 4100 treatment-naïve and previously treated patients treated with PI-based triple therapy or dual therapy, according to the discretion of the investigator and local standards of practice. The primary efficacy outcome was sustained virological response after 12-week follow up (SVR12).SVR12 rates in treatment-naïve genotype (G) 1 patients were 56.6% and 62.9% for recipients of boceprevir plus peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin and boceprevir plus peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, respectively, and 65.3% and 58.6% for recipients of telaprevir plus peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin and telaprevir plus peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, respectively. In previously treated patients assigned to these four regimens, SVR12 rates were 43.6%, 48.3%, 60.3% and 56.1%, respectively. Among treatment-naïve patients assigned to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin and peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, respectively, SVR12 rates were 49.2% and 41.9% in G1 patients, 75.7% and 83.3% in G2 patients, 65.9% and 65.9% in G3 patients, and 49.7%, and 51.1% in G4 patients. The safety and tolerability of dual and triple therapy were consistent with previous reports.The efficacy and safety of first-generation PI-based triple-therapy and dual-therapy regimens in this real-world cohort were broadly comparable to those of previous studies.
Project description:The aim of the study was to simplify the dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients with chronic hepatitis C.A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed using PK data from 14 children aged 2-8 years and 402 adults. Simulations were produced to identify a simplified dosing regimen that would provide exposures similar to those observed in the paediatric clinical trials and in the range known to be safe/efficacious in adults. Model predictions were evaluated against observed adult and paediatric data to reinforce confidence of the proposed dosing regimen.The final model was a two compartment model with a zero order resorption process. Covariates included a linear influence of body surface area (BSA) on apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and a linear influence of body weight on apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 /F). A simplified dosing regimen was developed which is expected to provide exposures in children aged ?5 years similar to the dosing formula used in the paediatric clinical trial and within the range that is safe/efficacious in adults. This simplified regimen is approved in the EU and in other countries for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in treatment-naive children/adolescents aged ?5 years in combination with ribavirin.Pre-existing adult PK data were combined with relatively limited paediatric PK data to develop a PK model able to predict exposure in both populations adequately. This provided increased confidence in characterizing PK in children and helped in the development of a simplified dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Less than half of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve sustained viral clearance after pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin therapy. S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) improves interferon signaling in cell culture. We assessed the effect of SAMe on the kinetics of the early antiviral response and interferon signaling in nonresponders to previous antiviral therapy and investigated the mechanisms involved. METHODS:Nonresponders with HCV genotype 1 were given peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 2 weeks (course A, baseline/control). After 1 month, patients received SAMe (1600 mg daily) for 2 weeks and then peginterferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks (course B; completed by 21 of 24 patients). Viral kinetics and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were compared between courses. RESULTS:The decrease in HCV RNA from 0 to 48 hours (phase 1) was similar with and without SAMe. However, the second phase slope of viral decline was improved with SAMe (course A, 0.11 ± 0.04 log(10) IU/mL/wk; course B, 0.27 ± 0.06; P = .009); 11 patients (53%) achieved an early virological response, and 10 (48%) had undetectable HCV RNA by week 24. Induction of ISGs in PBMCs was significantly greater during course B. In cultured cells, SAMe increased induction of ISGs and the antiviral effects of interferon by increasing STAT1 methylation, possibly affecting STAT1-DNA binding. CONCLUSIONS:The addition of SAMe to peginterferon and ribavirin improves the early viral kinetics and increases ISG induction in nonresponders to previous therapy. SAMe might be a useful adjunct to peginterferon-based therapies in chronic HCV infection.