Thermogenic differentiation of adipocyte progenitors
ABSTRACT: FACS-purified adipocyte progenitors from murine subcutaneous adipose tissue were cultured under conditions promoting general adipogenic differentiation or beige/brite adipocyte differentiation (treatment with cPGI2). Time course expression profiling was performed during differentiation. In addition, some cultures of differentiated adipocytes were stimulated with norepinephrine for 3 hours. In parallel, differentiation and norepinephrine stimulation of progenitors from interscapular brown fat was performed and profiled.
De novo formation of beige/brite adipocytes from progenitor cells contributes to the thermogenic adaptation of adipose tissue and holds great potential for the therapeutic remodeling of fat as a treatment for obesity. Despite the recent identification of several factors regulating browning of white fat, there is a lack of physiological cell models for the mechanistic investigation of progenitor-mediated beige/brite differentiation. We have previously revealed prostacyclin (PGI2) as one of the fe ...[more]
Project description:Lin-Sca-1+ adipocyte progenitors from subcutaneous adipose tissue of wild-type and Cited4-/- female mice were cultured under conditions promoting general adipogenic differentiation or beige/brite adipocyte differentiation (treatment with Rosi). Cells were harvested 48 post-induction of differentiation.
Project description:FACS-purified adipocyte progenitors from murine subcutaneous adipose tissue were cultured under conditions promoting general adipogenic differentiation or beige/brite adipocyte differentiation (treatment with cPGI2) in the presence of absence of Jak inhibitor I (JakiI), which targets all Jak family members. The cells were harvested 24 hours after induction of differentiation.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE35491: miR-206 integrates multiple components of differentiation pathways to control the transition from growth to differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells (Illumina) GSE35606: miR-206 integrates multiple components of differentiation pathways to control the transition from growth to differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells (miRNA) Refer to individual Series
Project description:Rhabdomyosarcoma is a pediatric tumor of skeletal muscle that expresses the myogenic basic helix-loop-helix protein MyoD but fails to undergo terminal differentiation. Prior work has determined that DNA binding by MyoD occurs in the tumor cells, but myogenic targets fail to activate. Using MyoD chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing and gene expression analysis in both primary human muscle cells and RD rhabdomyosarcoma cells, we demonstrate that MyoD binds in a similar genome-wide pattern in both tumor and normal cells but binds poorly at a subset of myogenic genes that fail to activate in the tumor cells. Binding differences are found both across genomic regions and locally at specific sites that are associated with binding motifs for RUNX1, MEF2C, JDP2, and NFIC. These factors are expressed at lower levels in RD cells than muscle cells and rescue myogenesis when expressed in RD cells. MEF2C is located in a genomic region that exhibits poor MyoD binding in RD cells, whereas JDP2 exhibits local DNA hypermethylation in its promoter in both RD cells and primary tumor samples. These results demonstrate that regional and local silencing of differentiation factors contributes to the differentiation defect in rhabdomyosarcomas. Total RNA samples were collected from primary human muscle cells (myoblasts and myotubes). Each sample has three biological replicates.
Project description:Background: Ectopic vascular calcifications represent a major clinical problem associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying pathological vascular calcifications are largely unknown hampering the development of therapies to tackle this life threatening medical condition. Results: In order to gain insight into the genes and mechanisms driving this pathological calcification process we analyzed the transcriptional profile of calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells (C-VSMCs). These profiles were compared to differentiating osteoblasts, cells that constitute their physiological calcification counterparts in the body. Overall the transcriptional program of C-VSMC and osteoblasts did not overlap. Several genes, some of them relevant for bone formation, were distinctly modulated by C-VSMCs which did not necessarily lose their smooth muscle cell markers while calcifying. Bioinformatics gene clustering and correlation analysis disclosed limited bone-related mechanisms being shared by two cell types. Extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomineralization genes represented common denominators between pathological vascular and physiological bone calcifications. These genes constitute the strongest link between these cells and represent potential drivers for their shared end-point phenotype. Conclusions: the analyses support the hypothesis that VSMC trans-differentiate into C-VSMCs keeping their own identity while using mechanisms that osteoblasts use to mineralize. The data provide novel insights into groups of genes and biological processes shared in MSC and VSMC osteogenic differentiation. The distinct gene regulation between C-VSMC and osteoblasts might hold clues to find cell-specific pathway modulations, opening the possibility to tackle undesired vascular calcifications without disturbing physiologic bone formation and vice versa. Total RNA obtained from hMSC and hVSMC cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium supplemented with 1.8 mM Ca2+ for 0, 2, 8, 12 or 25 days respectively. For each timepoint 3 replicates were used, with exception for day 0 where 4 replicates were collected.
Project description:Background: Similar to replicating myoblasts, many rhabdomyosarcoma cells express the myogenic determination gene MyoD. In contrast to myoblasts, rhabdomyosarcoma cells do not make the transition from a regulative growth phase to terminal differentiation. Previously we demonstrated that the forced expression of MyoD with its E-protein dimerization partner was sufficient to induce differentiation and suppress multiple growth-promoting genes, suggesting that the dimer was targeting a switch that regulated the transition from growth to differentiation. Our data also suggested that a balance existed between various inhibitory transcription factors and MyoD activity that kept rhabdomyosarcomas trapped in a proliferative state. Methods: Potential myogenic co-factors identified by analysis of high-throughput sequencing of chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in normal myogenic cells were tested for their ability to drive differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma cell culture models, and their relation to MyoD activity determined through molecular biological experiments. Results: Modulation of the transcription factors RUNX1 and ZNF238, factors with poorly delineated roles in myogenic development, can induce differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells and their activity is integrated, at least in part, through the activation of miR-206, which acts as a genetic switch to transition the cell from a proliferative growth phase to differentiation. The inhibitory transcription factor MSC also plays a role in controlling miR-206, appearing to function by occluding a binding site for MyoD in the miR-206 promoter. Conclusions: These findings suggest that nested feed-forward circuits that proceed from MyoD, to RUNX1, to ZNF238, and finally to miR-206 function in both rhabdomyosarcomas as well as normal myogenesis to control the decision point of proliferation versus differentiation. Total RNA samples were collected from human RD cells transduced with lentivirus carrying RUNX1, RP58 (ZNF238), miR-206 or GFP (three biological replicates each) and allowed to differentiate for 72 hours.
Project description:The aim of this study is to profile gene expression dynamics during the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells into ventral motor neurons. Expression levels were profiled using Affymetrix microarrays at six timepoints during in vitro differentiation: ES cells (Day 0), embryoid bodies (Day 2), retinoid induction of neurogenesis (Day 2 +8hours of exposure to retinoic acid), neural precursors (Day 3), progenitor motor neurons (Day 4), postmitotic motor neurons (Day 7). The differentiation of ventral motor neurons is induced by treating embryonic stem cell cultures with retinoic acid and hedgehog agonist. Here, gene expression patterns are profiled at various defined stages during the differentiation process using Affymetrix expression arrays.
Project description:Differentiation of muscle tissue is regulated by a complex network of transcription factors. The MEF2 family of transcription factors are important players in muscle development and differentiation. We knocked down expression of MEF2 isoforms in a cell culture model of skeletal muscle differentiation and assessed global expression pattern changes between MEF2 knockdowns, and with a negative control. C2C12 myoblasts were transduced with shRNA viral vectors to knockdown expression of individual MEF2 proteins. Cells were then induced to differentiate and were harvested 3 days post-differentiation for Affymetrix global gene expression analysis. Each array was pooled RNA from two separate transductions, and each treatment group was analyzed in triplicate.