MAGE-seq E.coli infA amplicon high-throughput genotyping data, mutants from Kelsic et al. Cell Systems, 2016
ABSTRACT: MAGE-seq amplicon data from the paper RNA structural determinants of optimal codons revealed by MAGE-seq in Cell Systems 2016 by Kelsic, Chung, Cohen, Park, Wang & Kishony. Data contains read counts for PCR amplicons of the Escherichia coli gene infA: 1) Single codon mutants tiling along the entire gene, with timepoints from growth doublings in rich and minimal medias. 2) Codon pair mutants for positions at the beginning of the gene with timepoints for growth doublings in rich media. 3) Mutations in a hairpin of the 5' UTR for growth in rich media.
Project description:MAGE-seq amplicon data from the paper RNA structural determinants of optimal codons revealed by MAGE-seq in Cell Systems 2016 by Kelsic, Chung, Cohen, Park, Wang & Kishony. Data contains read counts for PCR amplicons of the Escherichia coli gene infA: 1) Single codon mutants tiling along the entire gene, with timepoints from growth doublings in rich and minimal medias. 2) Codon pair mutants for positions at the beginning of the gene with timepoints for growth doublings in rich media. 3) Mutations in a hairpin of the 5' UTR for growth in rich media.
Project description:Synonymous codon choices at the beginning of genes optimize 5' RNA structures for enhanced translation initiation, but less is known about mechanisms that drive codon optimization downstream within the gene. To understand what determines codon choices across a gene, we generated 12,726 in situ codon mutants in the Escherichia coli essential gene infA and measured their fitness by combining multiplex automated genome engineering mutagenesis with amplicon deep sequencing (MAGE-seq). Correlating predicted 5' RNA structure with fitness revealed that codons even far from the start of the gene are deleterious if they disrupt the native 5' RNA conformation. These long-range structural interactions generate context-dependent rules that constrain codon choices beyond intrinsic codon preferences. Genome-wide RNA folding predictions confirm that natural codon choices far from the start codon are optimized in part to prevent disruption of native structures near the 5' UTR. Our results shed light on natural codon distributions and should improve engineering of gene expression for synthetic biology applications.
Project description:Undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells have a distinct morphology (hESC). Changes in cell morphology during culture can be indicative of differentiation. hESC, maintained in diverse medias, demonstrated alterations in morphological parameters and subsequent alterations in underlying transcript expression and lineage differentiation. Analysis of morphological parameters showed distinct and significant differences between the undefined, less defined and Xeno-free medias while still maintaining pluripotency markers. This suggested that the less defined media may be creating dynamic instability in the cytoskeleton, with the cytoskeleton becoming more stabilised in the Xeno-free media as demonstrated by smaller and rounder cells. Examination of early lineage markers during undirected differentiation using d5 embryoid bodies demonstrated increased mesodermal lineage preference as compared to endodermal or ectoderm in cells originally cultured in Xeno-free media. Undefined media showed preference for mesoderm and ectoderm lineages, while less defined media (BSA present) demonstrated no preference. These data reveal that culture media may produce fundamental changes in cell morphology which are reflected in early lineage differentiation choice.
Project description:The ability to culture normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) greatly facilitates experiments that seek to understand both normal mammary cell biology and the many differences between normal and abnormal human mammary epithelia. To maximize in vivo relevance, the primary cell culture conditions should maintain cells in states that resemble in vivo as much as possible. Towards this goal, we compared the properties of HMEC strains from two different reduction mammoplasty tissues that were grown in parallel using different media and culture conditions. Epithelial organoids were initiated into three different media: two commonly used serum-free-media, MCDB 170-type (e.g. MEGM) and WIT-P, and a low stress media, M87A. Growth, lineage heterogeneity, p16 protein expression, and population doublings to senescence were measured for each culture condition. MCDB 170 caused rapid senescence and loss of heterogeneity within 2 to 3 passages, but some cultures went through the 1 to 2 month process of selection to generate clonal finite post-selection post-stasis cells. WIT-P caused impressive expansion of luminal cells in 2nd passage followed by their near complete disappearance by passage 4 and senescence shortly thereafter. M87A supported as much as twice the number of population doublings compared to either serum-free medium, and luminal and myoepithelial cells were present for as many as 8 passages. Thus, of the three media compared, WIT-P and MCDB 170 imposed rapid senescence and loss of lineage heterogeneity, phenotypes consistent with cells maintained in high-stress conditions, while M87A supported cultures that maintained multiple lineages and robust growth for up to 60 population doublings. In conjunction with previous studies examining the molecular properties of cultures grown in these media, we conclude that M87A medium is most able to support long-term culture of multiple lineages similar to in vivo conditions, thereby facilitating investigations of normal HMEC biology relevant to the mammary gland in situ.
Project description:Starting from publicly-accessible datasets, we have utilized comparative and phylogenetic genome analyses to characterize the evolution of the human MAGE gene family. Our characterization of genomic structures in representative genomes of primates, rodents, carnivora, and macroscelidea indicates that both Type I and Type II MAGE genes have undergone lineage-specific evolution. The restricted expression pattern in germ cells of Type I MAGE orthologs is observed throughout evolutionary history. Unlike Type II MAGEs that have conserved promoter sequences, Type I MAGEs lack promoter conservation, suggesting that epigenetic regulation is a central mechanism for controlling their expression. Codon analysis shows that Type I but not Type II MAGE genes have been under positive selection. The combination of genomic and expression analysis suggests that Type 1 MAGE promoters and genes continue to evolve in the hominin lineage, perhaps towards functional diversification or acquiring additional specific functions, and that selection pressure at codon level is associated with expression spectrum.
Project description:A critical question among the researchers working on fungal lipid biology is whether the use of an enriched growth medium can affect the lipid composition of a cell and, therefore, contribute to the observed phenotypes. One presumption is that enriched medias, such as YPD (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose), are likely to contain lipids, which may homogenize with the yeast lipids and play a role in masking the actual differences in the observed phenotypes or lead to an altered phenotype altogether. To address this issue, we compared the lipids of Candida albicans, our fungus of interest, grown in YPD or in a defined media such as YNB (yeast nitrogen base). Mass spectrometry-based lipid analyses showed differences in the levels of phospholipids, including phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, lyso-phospholipids; sphingolipids, such as mannosyldiinositolphosphorylceramide; and sterols, such as ergostatetraenol. Significant differences were observed in 70 lipid species between the cells grown in the two media, but the two growth conditions did not affect the morphological characteristics of C. albicans. The lipid profiles of the YNB- and YPD-grown C. albicans cells did vary, but these differences did not influence their response to the majority of the tested agents. Rather, the observed differences could be attributed to the slow growth rate of the Candida cells in YNB compared to YPD. Notably, the altered lipid changes between the two media did impact the susceptibility to some drugs. This data provided evidence that changes in media can lead to certain lipid alterations, which may affect specific pathways but, in general, do not affect the majority of the phenotypic properties of C. albicans. It was determined that either YNB or YPD may be suitable for the growth and lipid analysis of C. albicans, depending upon the experimental requirements, but additional precautions are necessary when correlating the phenotypes with the lipids.
Project description:Since its arrival to North America less than a decade ago, the invasive Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) has inflicted substantial economic losses on soft fruit agriculture due to its ability to oviposit into ripening fruits. More effective management approaches for this species are needed, but little is known about the factors that influence behavioral choices made by D. suzukii when selecting hosts, or the consequences that their offspring experience when developing in different environments. Using a nutritional geometry methodology, we found that the ratio of proteins-to-carbohydrates (P:C) present in media greatly influenced adult D. suzukii behavior and subsequent offspring development. Whereas adult flies showed a strong bias in their oviposition and association behaviors toward carbohydrate-rich foods, larval survival and eclosion rate were strongly dependent on protein availability. Here, we explore the preference-performance hypothesis (PPH), in which females are predicted to oviposit on medias that provide the greatest offspring benefits, in regard to its relevance in D. suzukii behavior and consequences for management. Our results provide valuable insight into the ecology and evolution of this species that may hopefully lead to more effective management strategies.
Project description:Genetically engineered T cells expressing a T-cell receptor (TCR) are powerful tools for cancer treatment and have shown significant clinical effects in sarcoma patients. However, mismatch of the introduced TCR α/β chains with endogenous TCR may impair the expression of transduced TCR, resulting in an insufficient antitumor capacity of modified T cells. Here, we report the development of immunotherapy using human lymphocytes transduced with a codon-optimized melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE)-A4 and HLA-A*2402-restricted TCR, which specifically downregulate endogenous TCR by small interfering RNA (si-TCR). We evaluated the efficacy of this immunotherapy in both NOD-SCID mice and uterine leiomyosarcoma patients. Our results revealed that transduced human lymphocytes exhibited high surface expression of the introduced tumor-specific TCR, enhanced cytotoxic activity against antigen-expressing tumor cells, and increased interferon-γ production by specific MAGE-A4 peptide stimulation. Retarded tumor growth was also observed in NOD-SCID mice inoculated with human tumor cell lines expressing both MAGE-A4 and HLA-A*2402. Furthermore, we report the successful management of a case of uterine leiomyosarcoma treated with MAGE-A4 si-TCR/HLA-A*2402 gene-modified T cells. Our results indicate that the TCR-modified T cell therapy is a promising novel strategy for cancer treatment.
Project description:To help learn how phytopathogens feed from their hosts, genes for nutrient transporters from the hemibiotrophic potato and tomato pest Phytophthora infestans were annotated. This identified 453 genes from 19 families. Comparisons with a necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, and a hemibiotrophic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, revealed diversity in the size of some families although a similar fraction of genes encoded transporters. RNA-seq of infected potato tubers, tomato leaves, and several artificial media revealed that 56 and 207 transporters from P. infestans were significantly up- or down-regulated, respectively, during early infection timepoints of leaves or tubers versus media. About 17 were up-regulated >4-fold in both leaves and tubers compared to media and expressed primarily in the biotrophic stage. The transcription pattern of many genes was host-organ specific. For example, the mRNA level of a nitrate transporter (NRT) was about 100-fold higher during mid-infection in leaves, which are nitrate-rich, than in tubers and three types of artificial media, which are nitrate-poor. The NRT gene is physically linked with genes encoding nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR), which mobilize nitrate into ammonium and amino acids. All three genes were coregulated. For example, the three genes were expressed primarily at mid-stage infection timepoints in both potato and tomato leaves, but showed little expression in potato tubers. Transformants down-regulated for all three genes were generated by DNA-directed RNAi, with silencing spreading from the NR target to the flanking NRT and NiR genes. The silenced strains were nonpathogenic on leaves but colonized tubers. We propose that the nitrate assimilation genes play roles both in obtaining nitrogen for amino acid biosynthesis and protecting P. infestans from natural or fertilization-induced nitrate and nitrite toxicity.
Project description:Normal human cells in culture enter replicative senescence after a finite number of population doublings. The exact molecular mechanisms triggering the growth arrest are poorly understood. A recent report on the disappearance of the G-rich 3' telomeric overhang in senescent cells led to the hypothesis that loss of the 3' G-rich overhang is the molecular signal that triggers senescence. Here, we describe a quantitative assay to measure the length of the G-rich 3' telomeric overhangs from cultured cells. Using both this assay and the conventional nondenaturing hybridization assay for measuring G-rich overhangs, we show that normal human fibroblasts can maintain their overhangs at senescence. Furthermore, cells do not lose their overhangs when they bypass senescence after the inactivation of p53 and Rb. We thus conclude that a global reduction in overhang length is not the molecular signal that triggers replicative senescence.