RNA-seq analysis of mouse (C57/B6) small intestinal tissue after Porcupine Inhibitor treatment or vehicle control.
ABSTRACT: Mice were treated with 5 mg/kg LGK974 (Porcupine Inhibitor) for 4.5 days (BID, p.o.). Whole tissue (about 1cm length) from the proximal small intestine was harvested and used for RNA purification. The RNA Integrity was analysed with a NanoChip (Agilent RNA 6000). A total of 2ug of RNA per sample was purified via Poly-A selection and sequenced. Libraries were prepared according to the Illumina TruSeq protocol and sequenced on an Illumina GAIIx. Data was aligned to Mus_musculus.GRCm38.75 library.
Project description:Mice were treated with 5 mg/kg LGK974 (Porcupine Inhibitor) for 4.5 days (BID, p.o.). Whole tissue (about 1cm length) from the proximal small intestine was harvested and used for RNA purification. The RNA Integrity was analysed with a NanoChip (Agilent RNA 6000). A total of 2ug of RNA per sample was purified via Poly-A selection and sequenced. Libraries were prepared according to the Illumina TruSeq protocol and sequenced on an Illumina GAIIx. Data was aligned to Mus_musculus.GRCm38.75 library.
Project description:It is generally accepted that exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality, though the exact mechanism behind this has yet to be elucidated. Oxidative stress plays a potentially important role in the mechanism of toxicity, with Nrf2 serving as a major antioxidant gene. In the current study, a Nrf2 knockout mouse model was used in combination with an individual ventilated cage (IVC)-based real-ambient PM exposure system to assess the potential cardiotoxicity induced by real-ambient PM exposure and the potential role of Nrf2 and related signaling in this endpoint. After 6- or 11-weeks exposure to PM, ICP-mass spectrometry was used to assess the metal depositions in the heart tissue following PM exposure. Functional and morphological changes in the hearts were investigated with echocardiography and histopathology, and oxidative stress levels were assessed with a serum malondialdehyde content assay. In the further mechanistic study, an RNA-seq technique was utilized to assess the gene transcription status in the hearts of C57/B6 mice exposed to PM with or without Nrf2 knockout. The expression levels of genes of interest were then further investigated with quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. The results indicated that PM exposure resulted in significant elevation of sodium, potassium, selenium, and ferrum levels in mouse heart tissue. Meanwhile, significantly altered heart function and morphology were observed. Interestingly, Nrf2 knockout led to abolishment of PM-induced effects in several functional parameters but not the morphological changes. Meanwhile, elevated malondialdehyde content was observed in Nrf2 knockout animals. RNA-seq results revealed thousands of genes altered by PM exposure and/or Nrf2 knockout, and this affected several pathways, such as MAPK, phagosome, calcium signaling, and JAK-STAT. In subsequent molecular studies, enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was also observed following PM exposure, while the MAPK signaling pathway along with related JAK-STAT and TGF-?1 pathway genes, such as p38MAPK, AKT, TAK1, JAK1, STAT3, GRB2, TGFb1, and SMAD2, were confirmed to be affected by PM exposure and/or Nrf2 knockout. The data suggested that PM may induce cardiotoxicity in C57/B6 mice in which Nrf2 plays both protective and detrimental roles involving cardiac-related pathways, such as MAPK, JAK-STAT, and TGF-?1.
Project description:Mouse spleen CD4+CD44LowCD62LHigh cells were stimulated with 2ug/ml anti-CD3(eBioscience), 2ug/ml anti-CD28 (eBioscience) in the presence (Th17 condition) or absence (Th0 condition) of hTGFb-1 (1ng/ml eBioscience), mouse IL-6(10ng/ml eBioscience). Cells were collected after 24 hourÕs culture using RNAeasy columns (Qiagen) for total RNA isolation. Isolated total RNA from Th0 and Th17 conditioned cells were submitted for the microarray gene transcription comparison analysis using Affymetrix Mouse 430A 2.0 array chips.
Project description:Evaluate safety/tolerability/efficacy of MK-8242 in subjects with refractory/recurrent AML.MK-8242 was dosed p.o. QD (30-250mg) or BID (120-250mg) for 7on/7off in 28-day cycle. Dosing was modified to 7on/14off, in 21-day cycle (210 or 300mg BID).26 subjects enrolled (24 evaluable for response); 5/26 discontinued due to AEs. There were 7 deaths; 1 (fungal pneumonia due to marrow aplasia) possibly drug-related. With the 7on/7off regimen, 2 subjects had DLTs in the 250mg BID group (both bone marrow failure and prolonged cytopenia). With the 7on/14off, no DLTs were observed in 210mg BID or 300mg BID (doses>300mg not tested). Best responses were: 1/24 PR (11 weeks;120mg QD, 7on/7off); 1/24 CRi (2 weeks;210mg BID, 7on/14off); 1/24 morphologic leukemia-free state (4 weeks; 250mg BID, 7on/7off). PK on Day7 at 210mg BID revealed AUC0-12h 8.7?M·h,Cmax 1.5?M (n=5,Tmax, 2-6h),T1/2 7.9h, CLss/F 28.8L/h, and Vss/F 317L.The 7on/14off regimen showed a more favorable safety profile; no MTD was established. Efficacy was seen using both regimens providing impetus for further study of HDM2 inhibitors in subjects with AML.
Project description:The MEK inhibitor, selumetinib, suppresses soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) cell proliferation in vitro. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors possess modest activity against STS; however, resistance develops via MAPK pathway feedback activation. The combination of selumetinib and temsirolimus synergistically inhibits STS cell line growth. Therefore, a randomized phase II trial of selumetinib vs selumetinib plus temsirolimus was conducted.Seventy-one adults with advanced STS who received ⩽ 2 prior chemotherapeutics were randomized to selumetinib 75 mg p.o. bid and allowed to crossover upon progression, or to selumetinib 50 mg p.o. bid plus temsirolimus 20 mg i.v. weekly, with primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS).There was no difference in PFS between the two arms for the overall cohort (median 1.9 vs 2.1 months); an improved median PFS was observed in the combination arm (N = 11) over single agent (N = 10) in the prespecified leiomyosarcoma stratum (median 3.7 vs 1.8 months; P = 0.01). Four-month PFS rate was 50% (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.81) with the combination vs 0% with selumetinib alone in the leiomyosarcoma cohort. Most common grade 3/4 adverse events with the combination were mucositis (29%), lymphopenia (26%), neutropenia and anaemia (20% each).While single-agent selumetinib has no significant activity in STS, the combination may be active for leiomyosarcomas.
Project description:The liver performs a number of essential functions for life. The development of such a complex organ relies on finely regulated gene expression profiles which change over time in the development and determine the phenotype and function of the liver. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to study the gene expression and transcription regulation at 14 time points across the C57/B6 mouse liver development, which include E11.5 (embryonic day 11.5), E12.5, E13.5, E14.5, E15.5, E16.5, E17.5, E18.5, Day0 (the day of birth), Day3, Day7, Day14, Day21, and normal adult liver. With these data, we made a comprehensive analysis on gene expression patterns, functional preferences and transcriptional regulations during the liver development. A group of uncharacterized genes which might be involved in the fetal hematopoiesis were detected.
Project description:The C57/BL6 (B6) mouse strain exhibits post-hypoxic frequency decline and periodic breathing, as well as greater amount of irregular breathing during rest in comparison to the A/J and to the B6a1, a chromosomal substitution strain whereby the A/J chromosome 1 is bred onto the B6 background (Han et al., 2002; Yamauchi et al., 2008a,b). The hypothesis was that morphological differences in the carotid body would associate with such trait variations. After confirming strain differences in post-hypoxic ventilatory behavior, histological examination (n=8 in each group) using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed equivalent, well-defined tissue structure at the bifurcation of the carotid arteries, an active secretory parenchyma (type I cells) from the supportive stromal tissue, and clustering of type I cells in all three strains. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical staining revealed a typical organization of type I cells and neurovascular components into glomeruli in all three strains. Image analysis from 5 ?m sections from each strain generated a series of cytological metrics. The percent carotid body composition of TH+ type I cells in the A/J, B6 and B6a1 was 20±4%, 39±3%, and 44±3%, respectively (p=0.00004). However, cellular organization in terms of density and ultrastructure in the B6a1 is more similar to the B6 than to the A/J. These findings indicate that genetic mechanisms that produce strain differences in ventilatory function do not associate with carotid body structure or tyrosine hydroxylase morphology, and that A/J chromosome 1 does not contribute much to B6 carotid body morphology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acidity is a hallmark of malignant tumor, representing a very efficient mechanism of chemoresistance. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) at high dosage have been shown to sensitize chemoresistant human tumor cells and tumors to cytotoxic molecules. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of PPI in improving the clinical outcome of docetaxel?+?cisplatin regimen in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). METHODS:Patients enrolled were randomly assigned to three arms: Arm A, docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) on d4, repeated every 21 days with a maximum of 6 cycles; Arm B, the same chemotherapy preceded by three days esomeprazole (ESOM) 80 mg p.o. bid, beginning on d1 repeated weekly. Weekly intermittent administration of ESOM (3 days on 4 days off) was maintained up to maximum 66 weeks; Arm C, the same as Arm B with the only difference being dose of ESOM at 100 mg p.o. bid. The primary endpoint was response rate. RESULTS:Ninety-four patients were randomly assigned and underwent at least one injection of chemotherapy. Response rates for arm A, B and C were 46.9, 71.0, and 64.5 %, respectively. Median TTP for arm A (n?=?32), B (n?=?31), C (n?=?31) were 8.7, 9.4, and 9.7 months, respectively. A significant difference was observed between patients who had taken PPI and who not with ORR (67.7 % vs. 46.9 %, p?=?0.049) and median TTP (9.7 months vs. 8.7 months, p?=?0.045) [corrected]. Exploratory analysis showed that among 15 patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), this difference was bigger with median TTP of 10.7 and 5.8 months, respectively (p?=?0.011). PPI combination showed a marked effect on OS as well, while with a borderline significance (29.9 vs. 19.2 months, p?=?0.090). No additional toxicity was observed with PPI. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this pilot clinical trial showed that intermittent high dose PPI enhance the antitumor effects of chemotherapy in MBC patients without evidence of additional toxicity, which requires urgent validation in a multicenter, randomized, phase III trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01069081 .