Jinfukang enhances the pro-apoptotic activity of cisplatin via activation of AIFM2 in human lung cancer cells
ABSTRACT: Application of cisplatin (DDP) for treating lung cancer is restricted due to its toxicity and drug resistance. In this study, we aimed to examine whether Jinfukang (JFK), an effective herbal medicine against lung cancer, enhances DDP-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. Morphologically, we observed JFK increases DDP-induced pro-apoptosis in A549 cells in a synergistic manner. Transcriptome profiling analysis indicated that combination of JFK and DDP regulates genes involved in apoptosis-related signaling pathways. Moreover, we found the combination of JFK and DDP produces synergistic pro-apoptosis effect in other lung cancer cell lines NCI-H1975, NCI-H1650 and NCI-H2228. Particularly, we demonstrated AIFM2 is activated by the combined treatment of JFK and DDP, and partially mediate the synergistic pro-apoptosis effect. Collectively, this study gives the first evidence that activation of AIFM2 contributes to induction of pro-apoptosis by combined treatment with JFK and DDP in human lung cancer cells and provides an insight for its potential clinical application in lung cancer treatment.
Project description:Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), an ancient Chinese herbal decoction composed of Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Saposhnikoviae Radix, has been used in the clinic for treating immune deficiency. In cancer therapy, YPFS is being combined with chemotherapy drugs to achieve improved efficacy; however, scientific evidence to illustrate this combination effect is lacking. The present study aims to demonstrate the anti-drug resistance of YPFS in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549/DDP). The application of YPFS exhibited a synergistic enhancement of DDP-induced cytotoxicity as well as of the apoptotic signalling molecules. DDP-induced expression of the multi-drug-resistance efflux transporters was markedly reduced in the presence of YPFS, resulting in a higher intracellular concentration of DDP. In addition, the application of YPFS increased DDP-induced ROS accumulation and MMP depletion, decreased p62/TRAF6 signalling in DDP-treated A549/DDP cells. The co-treatment of DDP and YPFS in tumour-bearing mice reduced the tumour size robustly (by more than 80%), which was much better than the effect of DDP alone. These results indicate that YPFS can notably improve the DDP-suppressed cancer effect, which may be a consequence of the elevation of intracellular DDP via the drug transporters as well as the down regulation of p62/TRAF6 signalling.
Project description:Chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin (DDP), improve the survival of patients with lung cancer by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, which quickly develop resistance to DDP through uncharacterized mechanisms. Glioma Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1 (GLIPR1) plays an important role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. However, the expression and function of GLIPR1 in mediating DDP resistance in human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP and human large cell lung cancer H460/DDP cells has not yet been reported.In this study, real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot were used to examine the mRNA and protein expression of GLIPR1, respectively. Bright-field microscopy, the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry analysis and JC-1 dye were used to measure the cellular morphology, proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively.Compared to human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, the mRNA and protein expression of GLIPR1 were significantly increased in DDP-resistant A549/DDP cells (p < 0.05). Similarly, the mRNA level of GLIPR1 in DDP-resistant H460/DDP cells was also significantly higher than that in DDP-sensitive H460 cells (p < 0.05). Silencing of GLIPR1 in A549/DDP and H460/DDP cells led to increased apoptosis via a mitochondrial signaling pathway following incubation with various concentrations of DDP. Furthermore, GLIPR1 downregulation markedly reduced the protein expression of Bcl-2, and increased the cleaved Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) and cleaved caspase-3 in DDP-resistant A549/DDP cells.In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that GLIPR1 could modulate the response of DDP-resistant A549/DDP and H460/DDP cells to cisplatin. Therefore, GLIPR1 deserves further investigation in the context of none-small lung cancer (NSCLC).
Project description:Chemo-resistance is an obstacle in therapy of lung cancer. Alternative therapy of using herbal medicine has been proposed to resolve this obstacle. Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a common Chinese herbal medicinal mixture, has been reported to show anti-drug resistance on cisplatin (DDP), a common lung cancer drug. To optimize the anti-cancer function of YPFS, different Chinese herbal extracts having known function to overcome lung cancer were screened in combining with YPFS, as to increase the efficacy of DDP in drug resistance lung cancer cell, A549/DDP. Amongst these herbal extracts, Ginkgo Folium exhibited the most promoting sensitized effect. This revised herbal formula, named as YPFS+GF, promoted the DDP-induced toxicity by over 2-fold as compared to that of YPFS alone; this potentiation was confirmed by inducing cell apoptosis. The anti-drug resistance of YPFS, triggered by an increase of intracellular concentration of DDP, was accompanied by an increased expression and activity of WT1, which consequently decreased the transcript level of MVP. In addition, the MVP-mediated downstream effector mTOR2/AKT was disrupted after application of YPFS+GF in DDP-treated A549/DDP cell: this disruption was characterized by the decline of mTORC2 components, e.g., Rictor, p-mTOR, as well as the phosphorylation level of its downstream protein AKT. The disruption on mTORC2/AKT could be reversed by mTORC2 inducer insulin and promoted by mTORC2 inhibitor PP242. Thus, the anti-drug resistance of YPFS+GF in DDP-treated lung cancer cells might be mediated by the down regulation of WT1/MVP axis, as well as the downstream anti-apoptotic pathway of mTORC2/AKT signaling. Herbal medicine is one of the main adjuvant therapies in non-small cell lung cancer, and this novel herbal formula supports the prescription of traditional Chinese medicine in cancer treatment.
Project description:Activation of TLR3 stimulates cancer cell apoptosis and triggers secretion of inflammatory cytokines. PolyI:C, a TLR3 agonist, activates immune cells and regresses metastatic lung cancer in vivo. Although polyI:C reportedly kills lung carcinomas, the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that polyI:C suppressed the proliferation and survival of metastatic (NCI-H358 and NCI-H292) and non-metastatic (A549) lung cancer cells. Notably, A549, NCI-H292 and NCI-H358 which are inducible by polyI:C, expressed low-to-medium level of TLR3 protein, and were susceptible to polyI:C treatment. By contrast, NCI-H1299, which endogenously expresses high level of TLR3 protein, was insensitive to polyI:C. We showed that polyI:C stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with survival and metastasis in a cell type-specific manner. While A549 and NCI-H292 released high levels of IL6, IL8 and GRO, the NCI-H358 cells endogenously secretes abundant levels of these cytokines, and was not further induced by polyI:C. Thus, NCI-H358 was resistant to the inhibition of cytokine-dependent metastasis. NCI-H1299, which was unresponsive to polyI:C, did not produce any of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment of A549 with a combination of polyI:C and anti-IL6 antibody significantly decreased IL6 production, and enhanced polyI:C-mediated killing and suppression of oncogenicity and metastasis. While polyI:C stimulated the phosphorylation of STAT3 and JAK2, blockade of these proteins enhanced polyI:C-mediated suppression of survival and metastasis. Taken together, polyI:C alone provoked apoptosis of lung cancer cells that express low-to-medium levels of functional TLR3 protein. The combinatorial treatment with polyI:C and anti-IL6 enhanced polyI:C-mediated anticancer activities through IL6/JAK2/STAT3 signalling, and apoptosis via TLR3-mediated caspase 3/8 pathway.
Project description:In this study, a series of 4,5-bis(substituted phenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine compounds was designed, synthesised, and evaluated to determine their potential as anti-lung cancer agents. According to the results of screening of lung cancer cell lines A549, NCI-H460, and NCI-H23 in vitro, most of the synthesised compounds have potent cytotoxic activities with IC50 values ranging from 1.02 to 48.01 µM. Particularly, compound 4,5-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine (BCTA) was the most potent anti-cancer agent, with IC50 values of 1.09, 2.01, and 3.28 µM against A549, NCI-H460, and NCI-H23 cells, respectively, meaning many-fold stronger anti-lung cancer activity than that of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil. We also explored the effects of BCTA on apoptosis in lung cancer cells by flow cytometry and western blotting. Our results indicated that BCTA induced apoptosis by upregulating proteins BAX, caspase 3, and PARP. Thus, the potential application of compound BCTA as a drug should be further examined.
Project description:Purpose:Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Drug resistance is the major barrier for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this research is to develop an aptamer-decorated hybrid nanoparticle for the co-delivery of docetaxel prodrug (DTXp) and cisplatin (DDP) and to treat lung cancer. Materials and Methods:Aptamer-conjugated lipid-polymer ligands and redox-sensitive docetaxel prodrug were synthesized. DTXp and DDP were loaded into the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNs). The targeted efficiency of aptamer-decorated, DTXp and DDP co-encapsulated LPHNs (APT-DTXp/DDP-LPHNs) was determined by performing a cell uptake assay by flow cytometry-based analysis. In vivo biodistribution and anticancer efficiency of APT-DTXp/DDP-LPHNs were evaluated on NSCLC-bearing mice xenograft. Results:APT-DTXp/DDP-LPHNs had a particle size of 213.5 ± 5.3 nm, with a zeta potential of 15.9 ± 1.9 mV. APT-DTXp/DDP-LPHNs exhibited a significantly enhanced cytotoxicity (drug concentration causing 50% inhibition was 0.71 ± 0.09 ?g/mL), synergy antitumor effect (combination index was 0.62), and profound tumor inhibition ability (tumor inhibition ratio of 81.4%) compared with the non-aptamer-decorated LPHNs and single drug-loaded LPHNs. Conclusion:Since the synergistic effect of the drugs was found in this system, it would have great potential to inhibit lung tumor cells and in vivo tumor growth.
Project description:Drug resistance leads to tumor relapse and further progression during chemotherapy in lung cancer. Close homolog of L1 (CHL1) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in most malignancies. However, to the best of our knowledge, whether CHL1 mediates chemoresistance remains unknown. The present study observed that CHL1 was significantly downregulated in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant cells (A549/DDP) and paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant cells (A549/PTX) compared with A549 cells. When treated with or without DDP and PTX, silencing of CHL1 in A549 cells promoted the cell survival rate and clone formation, and decreased apoptosis. Whereas overexpression of CHL1 in A549/DDP and A549/PTX cells impeded the cell survival and clone formation and promoted apoptosis. Additionally, CHL1 overexpression enhanced the chemosensitivity of A549/DDP cells to DDP in vivo. Notably, the chemoresistance induced by CHL1 depletion was reversed by the Akt inhibitor SC66 in A549 cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that CHL1 enhanced sensitivity of lung cancer cells by suppressing the Akt pathway, which suggested that CHL1 may be a potential target for overcoming chemoresistance in lung cancer.
Project description:Gastric cancer is the third most frequent cause of cancer-associated mortality and almost all patients who respond initially to cisplatin (DDP) later develop drug resistance, indicating multi-drug resistance (MDR) is an essential aspect of the failure of treatment. The natural diterpenoid component Oridonin (Ori) has exhibited efficient inhibition in several types of human cancer. However, the effect and potential mechanism of Ori-reversed MDR in human gastric cancer has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, it was found that Ori significantly suppressed DDP-resistant human SGC7901/DDP cell proliferation, growth and colony formation, causing increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, decreased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR gene, multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), and cyclin D1. SGC7901/DDP cells were cultured with different groups of drugs (Ori, DDP alone, or the combination of Ori and DDP). The drug sensitivity, cell apoptosis and effects on MDR were detected by MTT assay and western blot analysis. The results revealed that Ori is able to reverse the DDP resistance and has a clear synergistic effect with DDP in SGC7901/DDP cells by decreasing the levels of P-gp, MRP1, cyclin D1 and cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A. Thus, Ori may be a novel effective candidate to treat DDP-resistant human gastric cancer cells.
Project description:Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) show anticancer activities through diverse molecular mechanisms. However, the anticancer capacities of either PUFAs or NSAIDs alone is limited. We examined whether combining NSAIDs with docosahexaenoic (DHA), commonly derived from fish oils, would possibly synergize their anticancer activity. We determined the viability of lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H1573, A549, NCI-H1299, and NCI-H1975) after exposure to DHA and various NSAIDs. We further conducted cell apoptosis assays and analyzed apoptosis-associated proteins and some key proteins in the RAS/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways using western blot analysis. We also determined the impact of the treatment on the expression of inducible cancer-related genes using nCounter PanCancer Pathways gene expression analysis. The results showed that the combination of DHA and NSAIDs increased suppression of cell viability in all the lung cancer cell lines tested compared to each of the compounds used alone, with diclofenac being the most potent NSAID tested. This synergistic effect is especially significant in A549 and NCI-H1573 cells. The combination treatment was more effective at inhibiting clonogenic cell growth and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis, and altering expression of critical proteins in the RAS/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. The data from this study demonstrate that DHA combined with low dose diclofenac provides greater anticancer potential, which can be further developed for chemoprevention and adjunct therapy in lung cancer.
Project description:Purpose:Lung cancer is one of the most prevailing human cancers worldwide. Emerging evidence implies that long non-coding RNA nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase-antisense RNA1 (NNT-AS1) is implicated in the tumorigenesis of lung cancer. Herein, we aimed to expose the impact of NNT-AS1 on the drug resistance of lung cancer. Methods:Levels of NNT-AS1, microRNA (miR)-1236-3p and autophagy-related gene 7 (ATG7) were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was implemented to detect cell proliferation and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of cisplatin (DDP) in vitro. Moreover, flow cytometry was performed to assess cell apoptosis. Cell migration and invasion were examined utilizing transwell assay in lung cancer cells. Besides, levels of ATG7 and cell behavior-related proteins were determined via Western blot. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was administrated to identify the interaction between miR-1236-3p and NNT-AS1 or ATG7. The biological role of NNT-AS1 in DDP ?resistance of lung cancer was examined by xenograft tumor model in vivo. Results:NNT-AS1 and ATG7 were upregulated, whereas miR-1236-3p was curbed in lung cancer tissues and in with or without DDP-resistant cell lines. NNT-AS1 detection significantly constrained cell growth, metastasis, and the IC50 of DDP in A549/DDP and H522/DDP cells. Interestingly, the influence of miR-1236-3p mimic on DDP resistance was overturned via NNT-AS1 upregulation in vitro. Reintroduction of miR-1236-3p inhibitor relieved the effect of ATG7 silencing on DDP sensitivity in A549/DDP and H522/DDP cells. Importantly, NNT-AS1 was a sponge of miR-1236-3p to separate ATG7. Besides, NNT-AS1 silencing enhanced DDP sensitivity of lung cancer in vivo. Conclusion:NNT-AS1/miR-1236-3p/ATG7 axis regulated DDP resistance in lung cancer cells and might supply a probable target and prognostic marker in lung cancer treatment.