The Rhizoctonia solani transcriptome during interaction with the host plant Lactuca sativa
ABSTRACT: We present the first results of a high coverage Dual RNA-Seq experiment of an R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 and L. sativa interaction model with focus on the R. solani transcriptome. With this experiment it is our goal to expand the knowledge regarding the pathosystem L. sativa R. solani AG1-IB through the determination of genes, of pivotal importance for this interaction and who can therefore be seen as putative pathogenicity determinants of R. solani infection within this specific host species.
Project description:Differential analysis of the potato-Rhizoctonia solani AG3 interaction. Samples were extracted from R. solani inoculated potato sprouts at two time points. R. solani is one of the most prominent fungal pests of potato and therefore of great economic relevance.
Project description:Subgroup Ib BHLH genes are induced by Fe deficiency. BHLH038 and BHLH039 were shown to be connected with salicylic acid. The triple knockout 3xbhlh (bhlh039-1 bhlh100-1 bhlh101-1) shows a stronger leaf chlorosis at - Fe than the wild type. The responses of this triple mutant were studied at - Fe in comparison to the wild type in the presence and absence of salicylic acid (SA). Wild type and 3xbhlh seedlings (bhlh039-1 bhlh100-1 bhlh101-1) were grown at – Fe and treated for six hours with or without 100 µM SA. Three biological replicates were generated.
Project description:Plant height is a critical constituent of plant architecture. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants have the potential to undergo rapid internodal elongation, which determines plant height. A number of physiological studies have proved that gibberellin is involved in internode elongation. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are the largest subfamily of transmembrane receptor-like kinases in plants. Plant LRR-RLKs play important functions in mediating a variety of cellular processes and regulating responses to environmental signals. LRK1, a PSK receptor homolog, is a member of the LRR-RLK family. In the present study, differences in ectopic expression of LRK1 were consistent with extent of rice internode elongation. Analyses of gene expression demonstrated that LRK1 restricts gibberellin responsiveness during the internode elongation process by down-regulation of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene, ent-KAURENE OXIDASE (OsKO2). Leaf tissues of 6-week-old LRK1 060615 transgenic rice and control 9311 rice (10 plants each) were selected.
Project description:Betaine critically contributes to the control of hepatocellular hydration and provides protection of the liver from different kinds of stress. This study investigates to what extent hepatocellular hydration changes affect the expression levels of enzymes involved in the metabolism of betaine and related organic osmolytes by using qRT-PCR gene expression studies in rat hepatoma cells as well as metabolic and gene expression profiling in 5,10 - methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficient primary hepatocytes. The results demonstrate a coordinated regulation of betaine degradation and synthesis under anisoosmotic conditions. Expression of betaine degrading enzymes is downregulated by hyperosmolarity and strongly induced by hypoosmolarity. In contrast, synthesis of glycerophosphocholine from phosphoethanolamine and conversion of choline to betaine are both induced by hyperosmolarity but decreased under hypoosmotic conditions. In addition we evaluated the flux of choline and its derivates in liver and plasma of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase knockout (Mthfr-/-) mice by tandem mass spectrometry. Analyses of system-wide alterations of osmolyte metabolism with microarray studies revealed expression changes similar to those after hypoosmotic exposure in this betaine depletion model. In conclusion, regulation of betaine synthesis and degradation and concomitant changes in intracellular osmolyte concentrations contribute to long-term adaptation to anisoosmotic exposure of the liver. Expression of 280 genes were analyzed in wild type and mthr-/- mice (n=7) with spotted oligonucleotides.
Project description:Strobilurins are an important class of agrochemical fungicides used throughout the world on a wide variety of crops to protect against fungal pathogens. In addition to their protective role against pathogens, they are reported to also positively influence plant physiology. In this study, we analyzed the effect of Stroby WG, a commercially available fungicide consisting of 50% (w/w) kresoxim-methyl (KM) as active strobilurin compound, on Arabidopsis plant growth. Treatment of seeds or seedlings with Stroby resulted in larger leaves due to an increase in cell number. Transcriptome analysis of Stroby-treated rosettes demonstrated an increased expression of genes involved in redox homeostasis, iron metabolism and sugar transport. Stroby treatment strongly induced the expression of the subgroup Ib basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which have a role in iron homeostasis under iron-limiting conditions.
Project description:In rice (Oryza sativa L.), the number of panicles, spikelets per panicle and grain weight are important components of grain yield. These characteristics are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and are derived from variation inherent in crops.The identification of different yield related QTLs facilitates an understanding of the mechanisms involved in cereal crop yield, and may have utility in improving grain yield in cereal crops. an understanding of the mechanisms involved in cereal crop yield, and may have utility in improving grain yield in cereal crops. In the present study, We cloned and characterized a large-panicle QTL, and confirmed that the newly identified gene OsEBS (enhancing biomass and spikelet number) increased plant height, leaf size and spikelet number per panicle, leading to an average of 37.62% increase in total grain yield per plant. trait loci (QTLs) and are derived from variation inherent in crops. OsEBS-transgenic rice B10201 and B10301 and control Guichao2
Project description:The proliferative darkening syndrome (PDS) is an annually recurring disease that causes species-specific die-off of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in PDS-impacted pre-alpine rivers of central Europe. The mortality rate for PDS is near 100% and consequently the survival of brown trout populations in the impacted regions is threatened. The progression of PDS occurs in two stages, a subclinical stage and a symptomatic stage, over a time period of more than 3 months starting in spring and culminating with the die-off of brown trout in late summer. Based on experimental evidence it is hypothesized that PDS is caused by an infectious agent. To substantiate this working hypothesis as well as to discern the type of pathogen likely to be responsible for PDS, microarray analysis were conducted using a salmonid-specific cDNA microarray to assess the hepatic immune response of brown trout during the progression of PDS in 7-day intervals over a time period of 98 days.The microarray analysis revealed that brown trout suffering from PDS exhibit increased hepatic expression of important anti-viral genes both during the subclinical stage of PDS, namely the Barrier-to-autointegration factor, and during the symptomatic stage of PDS, namely the interferon regulatory factor 1 as well as the Guanylate-binding protein 1. Additionally, during the symptomatic stage of PDS there is strong hepatic up-regulation of the chemokine CCL19, complement components C1QC and C6, Proteasome activator complex subunits 1 and 2 as well as a variety of both MHC class I and MHC class II transcripts. In conclusion, the increased expression of hepatic immune response genes involved in a variety of immune system processes that mediate defense against infection identified by the microarray analysis during the progression of PDS support the working hypothesis that PDS is caused by an infectious agent. Furthermore, the up-regulation of antiviral immune response genes during both the subclinical stage and the symptomatic stage of PDS suggests that this disease is caused by a pathogenic virus. On May 29, 2008, brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) of the same age class (1+) with an individual weight ranging between 25-85 grams were obtained from a single hatchery (Schwäbischer Fischereihof Salgen, Fachberatung für Fischerei Schwaben, Germany) and randomly allocated to one of two different experimental stations that are both located along the Iller river, named here simply the control station (location by Oberstdorf, Germany) and the treatment station (location by Kempten, Germany). At both experimental stations brown trout were held in tanks (n=750 at the treatment station and n=70 at the control station) that were supplied with water from the Iller river in a flow-through system. Sampling at both experimental stations started on May 29, 2008, which was also the day on which the fish were first transferred to their exposure tanks (referred to as 0 day post exposure; d.p.e), and ended on the 5th of September 2008. At the treatment station 3 fish were sampled each day (always at 2pm), whereas at the control station 3 fish were sampled in 7-day intervals (always at 12 noon). Fish were anaesthetized by a blow to the head and organ tissue of interest (liver, kidney, spleen, gill, muscle, stomach and foregut tissue) were immediately harvested from sacrificed fish, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently stored at -80°C. Livers from the three brown trout (n=3) that were sampled concurrently from both treatment and control group (n=2) in 7-day intervals starting 7 d.p.e (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 98 d.p.e; n=14) were recruited for the use in the microarray analysis. Microarray analyses were performed using a direct comparison two-channel design in which equimolar amounts of liver sample of one brown trout from both treatment and control group were co-hybridized on the same microarray. For each time point (n=14) microarray co-hybridizations were repeated in triplicate (n=3) and included one dye-swap in order to reduce dye-bias. Thus a total of 42 microarray slides were used in this study (3 biological replicate microarrays x 14 time points = 42 microarrays).