Transcription profiling of HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia cells treated with Daunorubicin (DNR), Cytarabin (Ara-C), or NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS2870
ABSTRACT: Daunorubicin (DNR) and Cytarabin (Ara-C) are the main chemotherapeutic drugs used for Acute Myeloid Leukemias (AML) treatment. However, their mode of action is not well understood. To decipher if these drug would induce rapid transcriptional reprogramming, we treated HL-60 AML cell line with DNR or Ara-C for 3 hours and carried out a transcriptomic analyses. In addition, we had shown that Reactive Oxigen Species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases (NOX) are involved in DNR-induced gene expression. We therefore also performed a transcriptomic analyses in HL-60 cells treated with DNR and VAS2870, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. HL-60 cells were treated or not for 3 hours with 2 µM Ara-C, 1 µM DNR or 1 µM DNR + 20µM VAS 2870. RNAs were purified from 3 independent experiments and used to probe Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 ST Genechips
Project description:The Acute Myeloid Leukemia cell line HL-60 was rendered resistant to daunorubicin (DNR) or cytarabine (Ara-C) by continuous exposure to the drug up to concentrations of 30nM for DNR and 100nM for Ara-C. Transcriptomic analysis were then performed by RNA-Seq to compare the cell lines Overall design: 3 biological replicates were performed for parental HL-60, Ara-C resistant (HRA) and DNR-resistant (HRD)
Project description:Wide inter-individual variation in terms of outcome and toxic side effects of treatment exist among patients with AML receiving chemotherapy with cytarabine (Ara-C) and daunorubicin (Dnr). Drug resistance and relapse are considered major causes of treatment failure. Gene expression profiling was undertaken to address possible mechanisms of Ara-C/Dnr resistance. Based on ex vivo Ara-C cytotoxicity at diagnosis, Ara-C sensitive (IC50 <3uM AraC) and Dnr sensitive samples (IC50 < 0.5 uM) (5 samples each) were included for microarray analysis. These were compared with the samples which were drug resistant ex vivo at diagnosis. Our microarray experiment resulted in indentifying differentially expressed genes under ex vivo Ara-C sensitive as well as Dnr sensitive samples compared to ex vivo Drug resistant samples. One-color experiment,Organism: Homo sapiens, Custom Human Whole Genome 8x60k Array designed by Genotypic Technology Private Limited (AMADID: 27114), Labeling kit: Agilent Quick-Amp labeling Kit (p/n5190-0442)
Project description:PURPOSE:Chemotherapy drug resistance and relapse of the disease have been the major factors limiting the success of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy. Several factors, including the pharmacokinetics (PK) of Cytarabine (Ara-C) and Daunorubicin (Dnr), could contribute to difference in treatment outcome in AML. METHODS:In the present study, we evaluated the plasma PK of Dnr, the influence of genetic polymorphisms of genes involved in transport and metabolism of Dnr on the PK, and also the influence of these factors on clinical outcome. Plasma levels of Dnr and its major metabolite, Daunorubicinol (DOL), were available in 70 adult de novo AML patients. PK parameters (Area under curve (AUC) and clearance (CL)) of Dnr and DOL were calculated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling analysis performed with Monolix. Genetic variants in ABCB1, ABCG2, CBR1, and CBR3 genes as well as RNA expression of CBR1, ABCB1, and ABCG2 were compared with Dnr PK parameters. RESULTS:The AUC and CL of Dnr and DOL showed wide inter-individual variation. Patients with an exon1 variant of rs25678 in CBR1 had significantly higher plasma Dnr AUC [p = 0.05] compared to patients with wild type. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) had significantly lower plasma Dnr AUC, Cmax, and higher CL compared to patients who did not achieve CR. CONCLUSION:Further validation of these findings in a larger cohort of AML patients is warranted before establishing a therapeutic window for plasma Dnr levels and targeted dose adjustment.
Project description:The study was designed to compare clofarabine plus daunorubicin vs daunorubicin/ara-C in older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Eight hundred and six untreated patients in the UK NCRI AML16 trial with AML/high-risk MDS (median age, 67 years; range 56-84) and normal serum creatinine were randomised to two courses of induction chemotherapy with either daunorubicin/ara-C (DA) or daunorubicin/clofarabine (DClo). Patients were also included in additional randomisations; ± one dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in course 1; 2v3 courses and ± azacitidine maintenance. The primary end point was overall survival. The overall response rate was 69% (complete remission (CR) 60%; CRi 9%), with no difference between DA (71%) and DClo (66%). There was no difference in 30-/60-day mortality or toxicity: significantly more supportive care was required in the DA arm even though platelet and neutrophil recovery was significantly slower with DClo. There were no differences in cumulative incidence of relapse (74% vs 68%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.93 (0.77-1.14), P=0.5); survival from relapse (7% vs 9%; HR 0.96 (0.77-1.19), P=0.7); relapse-free (31% vs 32%; HR 1.02 (0.83-1.24), P=0.9) or overall survival (23% vs 22%; HR 1.08 (0.93-1.26), P=0.3). Clofarabine 20?mg/m2 given for 5 days with daunorubicin is not superior to ara-C+daunorubicin as induction for older patients with AML/high-risk MDS.
Project description:Cytarabine (Ara-C) and Daunorubicin (Dnr) forms the backbone of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy. Drug resistance and toxic side effects pose a major threat to treatment success and hence alternate less toxic therapies are warranted. NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of antioxidant response is implicated in chemoresistance in solid tumors. However, little is known about the role of Nrf2 in AML chemoresistance and the effect of pharmacological inhibitor brusatol in modulating this resistance. Primary AML samples with high ex-vivo IC50 to Ara-C, ATO, Dnr had significantly high NRF2 RNA expression. Gene-specific knockdown of NRF2 improved sensitivity to these drugs in resistant AML cell lines by decreasing the expression of downstream antioxidant targets of Nrf2 by compromising the cell's ability to scavenge the ROS. Treatment with brusatol, a pharmacological inhibitor of Nrf2, improved sensitivity to Ara-C, ATO, and Dnr and reduced colony formation capacity. AML cell lines stably overexpressing NRF2 showed increased resistance to ATO, Dnr and Ara-C and increased expression of downstream targets. This study demonstrates that Nrf2 could be an ideal druggable target in AML, more so to the drugs that function through ROS, suggesting the possibility of using Nrf2 inhibitors in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to modulate drug resistance in AML.
Project description:The deoxycytidine analogue cytarabine (ara-C) remains the backbone treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) as well as other haematological and lymphoid malignancies, but must be combined with other chemotherapeutics to achieve cure. Yet, the underlying mechanism dictating synergistic efficacy of combination chemotherapy remains largely unknown. The dNTPase SAMHD1, which regulates dNTP homoeostasis antagonistically to ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), limits ara-C efficacy by hydrolysing the active triphosphate metabolite ara-CTP. Here, we report that clinically used inhibitors of RNR, such as gemcitabine and hydroxyurea, overcome the SAMHD1-mediated barrier to ara-C efficacy in primary blasts and mouse models of AML, displaying SAMHD1-dependent synergy with ara-C. We present evidence that this is mediated by dNTP pool imbalances leading to allosteric reduction of SAMHD1 ara-CTPase activity. Thus, SAMHD1 constitutes a novel biomarker for combination therapies of ara-C and RNR inhibitors with immediate consequences for clinical practice to improve treatment of AML.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cytarabine (ara-C) is the major drug for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but cellular resistance to ara-C is a major obstacle to therapeutic success. The present study examined enhanced anti-apoptosis identified in 3 newly established nucleoside analogue-resistant leukemic cell line variants and approaches to overcoming this resistance. METHODS:HL-60 human AML cells were used to develop the ara-C- or clofarabine (CAFdA)-resistant variants. The Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax and the Mcl-1 inhibitor alvocidib were tested to determine whether they could reverse these cells' resistance. RESULTS:A 10-fold ara-C-resistant HL-60 variant, a 4-fold CAFdA-resistant HL-60 variant, and a 30-fold CAFdA-resistant HL-60 variant were newly established. The variants demonstrated reduced deoxycytidine kinase and deoxyguanosine kinase expression, but intact expression of surface transporters (hENT1, hENT2, hCNT3). The variants exhibited lower expression of intracellular nucleoside analogue triphosphates compared with non-variant HL-60 cells. The variants also overexpressed Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Venetoclax as a single agent was not cytotoxic to the resistant variants. Nevertheless, venetoclax with nucleoside analogs demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity against the variants. Alvocidib as a single agent was cytotoxic to the cells. However, alvocidib induced G1 arrest and suppressed the cytotoxicity of the co-administered nucleoside analogs. CONCLUSIONS:Three new nucleoside analogue-resistant HL-60 cell variants exhibited reduced production of intracellular analogue triphosphates and enhanced Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expressions. Venetoclax combined with nucleoside analogs showed synergistic anti-leukemic effects and overcame the drug resistance.
Project description:To minimize the non-specific toxicity of drug combination during cancer therapy, we prepared a new system synthesized from bacteria to deliver the anticancer drugs cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and daunorubicin (DNR). In this study, we selected genipin (GP) and poly-l-glutamic acid (PLGA) as dual crosslinkers. Herewith, we demonstrated the preparation, characterization and in vitro antitumor effects of Ara-C and DNR loaded GP-PLGA-modified bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) (ADBMs-P). The results show that this new system is stable and exhibits optimal drug-loading properties. The average diameters of BMs and ADBMs-P were 42.0 ± 8.6 nm and 65.5 ± 8.9 nm, respectively, and the zeta potential of ADBMs-P (-42.0 ± 6.4 mV) was significantly less than that of BMs (-28.6 ± 7.6 mV). The optimal encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of Ara-C were 68.4% ± 9.4% and 32.4% ± 2.9%, respectively, and those of DNR were 36.1% ± 2.5% and 17.9% ± 1.6%. Interestingly, this system also exhibits long-term release behaviour sequentially, without an initial burst release. The Ara-C drug continued to release about 85% within 40 days, while DNR release lasted only for 13 days. Moreover, similar to free drugs, ADBMs-Ps are strongly cytotoxic to cancer cells in vitro (HL-60 cells), with the inhibition rate approximately 96%. This study reveals that this new system has a potential for drug delivery application in the future, especially for combination therapy.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease that frequently relapses after standard chemotherapy. Therefore, there is a need for the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents that could treat AML effectively. Radotinib, an oral BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was developed as a drug for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Previously, we reported that radotinib exerts increased cytotoxic effects towards AML cells. However, little is known about the effects of combining radotinib with Ara-C, a conventional chemotherapeutic agent for AML, with respect to cell death in AML cells. Therefore, we investigated combination effects of radotinib and Ara-C on AML in this study.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Synergistic anti-cancer effects of radotinib and Ara-C in AML cells including HL60, HEL92.1.7, THP-1 and bone marrow cells from AML patients have been examined. Diverse cell biological assays such as cell viability assay, Annexin V-positive cells, caspase-3 activity, cell cycle distribution, and related signaling pathway have been performed.<br><br><b>Results: </b>The combination of radotinib and Ara-C was found to induce AML cell apoptosis, which involved the mitochondrial pathway. In brief, combined radotinib and Ara-C significantly induced Annexin V-positive cells, cytosolic cytochrome C, and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax in AML cells including HL60, HEL92.1.7, and THP-1. In addition, mitochondrial membrane potential and Bcl-xl protein were markedly decreased by radotinib and Ara-C. Moreover, this combination induced caspase-3 activity. Cleaved caspase-3, 7, and 9 levels were also increased by combined radotinib and Ara-C. Additionally, radotinib and Ara-C co-treatment induced G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> arrest via the induction of CDKIs such as p21 and p27 and the inhibition of CDK2 and cyclin E. Thus, radotinib/Ara-C induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> arrest via the regulation of the CDKI-CDK-cyclin cascade in AML cells. In addition, our results showed that combined treatment with radotinib and Ara-C inhibits AML cell growth, including tumor volumes and weights in vivo. Also, the combination of radotinib and Ara-C can sensitize cells to chemotherapeutic agents such as daunorubicin or idarubicin in AML cells.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Therefore, our results can be concluded that radotinib in combination with Ara-C possesses a strong anti-AML activity.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a common adult leukemia often arising from a preexistent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). High mortality rates of AML are caused by relapse and chemoresistance; therefore, we analyzed the role of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) splice variants A and B in AML progression and response to chemotherapy. The expression of P2X7RA and P2X7RB was investigated in samples obtained from MDS and AML untreated subjects or AML patients in relapse or remission after chemotherapy. Both P2X7RA and P2X7RB were overexpressed in AML versus MDS suggesting a disease-promoting function. However, in relapsing patients, P2X7RA was downmodulated, while P2X7RB was upmodulated. Treatment with daunorubicin (DNR), one of the main chemotherapeutics for AML, upregulated P2X7RB expression while reducing P2X7RA mRNA in AML blasts. Interestingly, DNR administration also caused ATP release from AML blasts suggesting that, following chemotherapy, activation of the receptor isoforms via their agonist will be responsible for the differential survival of blasts overexpressing P2X7RA versus P2X7RB. Indeed, AML blasts expressing high levels of P2X7RA were more prone to cell death if exposed to DNR, while those overexpressing P2X7RB were more vital and even protected against DNR toxicity. These data were reproducible also in HEK-293 cells separately expressing P2X7RA and B. P2X7RA facilitation of DNR toxicity was in part due to increased uptake of the drug inside the cell that was lost upon P2X7RB expression. Finally, in an AML xenograft model administration of DNR or the P2X7R antagonist, AZ10606120 significantly reduced leukemic growth and coadministration of the drugs proved more efficacious than single treatment as it reduced both P2X7RA and P2X7RB levels and downmodulated c-myc oncogene. Taken together, our data suggest P2X7RA and P2X7RB as potential prognostic markers for AML and P2X7RB as a therapeutic target to overcome chemoresistance in AML relapsing patients.