Integrated host and viral transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq of specific pathogen-free chicken infected with Avian leukosis virus
ABSTRACT: Avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes substantial economic losses from mortality and decreased performance in poultry industry. To characterize the response to ALV challenge, we developed a novel methodology that combines four datasets: mRNA expression and their associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) layer chickens were assigned to the ALV-infected or control group. Spleen samples (n=6) were collected at 40 days post injection (dpi), and sequenced. Comparing the infected and non-infected groups, 864 genes, 7 miRNAs and 17 lncRNAs were differentially expressed.
Project description:Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV; genus Cytomegalovirus, subfamily Betaherpesvirinae, family Herpesviridae) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits the immune function of T lymphocytes and macrophages, which has caused great distress to the farming industry. In this study, we obtained the miRNA expression profiles of PCMV-infected and control porcine macrophages, PCMV-infected and control porcine tissues via high-throughput sequencing. The comprehensive analysis of miRNA profiles showed that 306 miRNA database annotated and 295 novel pig-encoded miRNAs were detected. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the target genes of miRNAs in PCMV infected porcine macrophages showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs are mainly involved in immune and metabolic process. This is the first report of the miRNA transcriptome in PCMV infected porcine macrophages and PCMV infected tissues and the analysis of the miRNA regulatory mechanism during PCMV infection. Further research into the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs during immunosuppressive viral infections will contribute to the treatment and prevention of immunosuppressive viruses. miRNA expression profiling of PCMV-infected and control porcine macrophages; PCMV-infected and control porcine tissues via high-throughput sequencing.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukemia is a type of oncology infectious disease caused by Subtype J of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). It mainly encroaches on bone marrow cells, and metastasizes to liver, kidney, splenic ellipsoids and other organs, leading to myeloid leukosis (ML) and other malignancies, resulting in significant economic losses. microRNA play important roles in oncology infectious diseases. We used miRNA microarray analysis to detail the relationship of aberrant microRNAs and chicken ALV-J leukemia, and to try to find the potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for infections of subtype J of leukemia. ALV-J-infected and non-infected ten-week-old chicken liver tissues were sampled for the array assay. A1, A2, and A3 are the ALV-J infection group samples, and DA1, DA2, and DA3 are the control samples. 623 mature miRNA sequences were assembled and integrated into the LC miRNA microarray design, and different miRNA expressions were measured on the 7000HT Fast Real-Time PCR system.
Project description:Subgroup A of the avian leukosis virus (ALV-A) can cause severe pathological lesions and death in infected chickens, and its reported hosts have increased recently. To assess the susceptibility of adult chickens, quails, and pigeons to ALV-A, three sets of 250-day-old birds were intraperitoneally inoculated with ALV-A. Viremia and cloacal virus shedding were dynamically detected using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ALV-P27 antigen ELISA or RT-PCR; pathological lesions were assessed using tissue sections; ALV-A in tissues was detected by IFA; and ALV-A antibody responses were detected using antibody ELISA kits and an immune diffusion test. The results indicated that persistent viremia occurred in 80% (8/10) of infected chickens, and transient viremia occurred in 17% (2/12) of infected quails, but no viremia occurred in infected pigeons. Cloacal virus shedding occurred intermittently in 80% (8/10) of infected chickens and in 8% (1/12) of infected quails but did not occur in infected pigeons. Severe inflammatory pathological lesions occurred in the visceral tissues of most infected chickens, and mild lesions occurred in a few of the infected quails, but no pathological lesions occurred in the infected pigeons. The ALV-A virus was detected in the visceral tissues of most infected chickens but not in the infected quails and pigeons. Obviously different ALV-A antibody responses occurred in the infected chickens, quails and pigeons. It can be concluded that adult chickens, quails and pigeons have dramatically different susceptibilities to ALV-A. This is the first report on artificial infection by ALV-A in different birds.
Project description:Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV; Coronaviridae family) causes huge economic losses to the swine industry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a regulatory role in viral infection and may be involved in the mammalian immune response. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of host miRNA expression in TGEV-infected swine testis (ST) cells. Deep sequencing generated 3,704,353 and 2,763,665 reads from uninfected ST cells and infected ST cells, respectively. The reads were aligned to known Sus scrofa pre-miRNAs in miRBase 19, identifying 284 annotated miRNAs. Certain miRNAs were differentially regulated during TGEV infection, which confirmed the hypothesis that specific miRNAs play a regulatory role in virus-host interactions. 59 unique miRNAs displayed significant differentially expression between the normal and TGEV-infected ST cell samples: 15 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 44 were significantly down-regulated. Stem-loop RT-PCR was carried out to determine the expression levels of specific miRNAs in the two samples, and the results were consistent with those of sequencing. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of host target genes demonstrated that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in regulatory networks, including cellular process, metabolic process, immune system process. This is the first report of the identification of ST cell miRNAs and the comprehensive analysis of the miRNA regulatory mechanism during TGEV infection, which revealed the miRNA molecular regulatory mechanisms for the viral infection, expression of viral genes and the expression of immune-related genes. The results presented here will aid research on the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. 2 ST(Porcine testicular cells) cell samples, ST: normal ST cell sample (contro sample), TGEV: TGEV (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infected ST cell samples
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause several different leukemia-like proliferative diseases in the hemopoietic system of chickens. Here, we investigated the transcriptome profiles and miRNA expression profiles of ALV-J-infected and uninfected chicken spleens to identify the genes and miRNAs related to ALV-J invasion. In total, 252 genes and 167 miRNAs were differentially expressed in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to control uninfected spleens. miR-23b expression was up-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared with the control spleens, and transcriptome analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) was down-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to uninfected spleens. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that IRF1 was a direct target of miR-23b. miR-23b overexpression significantly (P = 0.0022) decreased IRF1 mRNA levels and repressed IRF1-3'-UTR reporter activity. In vitro experiments revealed that miR-23b overexpression strengthened ALV-J replication, whereas miR-23b loss of function inhibited ALV-J replication. IRF1 overexpression inhibited ALV-J replication, and IRF1 knockdown enhanced ALV-J replication. Moreover, IRF1 overexpression significantly (P = 0.0014) increased IFN-β expression. In conclusion, these results suggested that miR-23b may play an important role in ALV-J replication by targeting IRF1.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an immunosuppressive virus that causes considerable economic losses to the chicken industry in China. However, there is currently no effective vaccine to prevent ALV-J infection. In order to reduce the losses caused by ALV-J, we constructed two effective ALV-J vaccines by inserting the ALV-J (strain JL093-1) env or gag+env genes into the US2 gene of the Marek's disease herpesviruses (MDV) by transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs, creating two recombinant MDVs, rMDV/ALV-gag+env and rMDV/ALV-env. Analysis of cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with the rMDVs revealed that Env and Gag were successfully expressed and that there was no difference in growth kinetics in cells infected with rMDVs compared with that of cells infected with the parent MDV. Chickens vaccinated with either rMDV revealed that positive serum antibodies were induced. Both rMDVs also effectively reduced the rate of positive viremia in chicken flocks challenged with ALV-J. The protective effect provided by rMDV/ALV-env inoculation was slightly stronger than that provided by rMDV/ALV-gag+env. This represents the first study where a potential rMDV vaccine, expressing ALV-J antigenic genes, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of ALV-J. Our study also opens new avenues for the control of MDV and ALV-J co-infection.
Project description:Collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) has recently been identified as avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) replication-dependent factor that remarkably facilitates ALV-J replication via interaction with the envelope glycoprotein (SU) of ALV-J. However, the dynamic distribution and localization of CTHRC1 in various tissues upon ALV-J infection are still unknown. In this study, data revealed that the levels of CTHRC1 were significantly increased in various tissues and that the protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm and nucleus of parenchymal cells in tissues of chickens that were infected by ALV-J naturally and experimentally. Interestingly, CTHRC1 was also observed in leukocytes other than erythrocytes in congested veins of ALV-J-infected tissues. Consequently, the positive cells in these veins were confirmed as lymphocytes by laser confocal microscopy. Taken together, these results conclude that the CTHRC1 is an inducible protein and exhibited ubiquitous expression in ALV-J-infected chickens, which may provide basic information for in-depth study of ALV-J infection and replication mechanisms.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that has a similar replication cycle to multiple viruses and therefore can be used as a model system for viral entry into host cells. However, there are few reports on the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for the replication of ALV-J. Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of miR-34b-5p was significantly upregulated in ALV-J-infected chicken spleens compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) had the opposite expression pattern. In this study, a dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that MDA5 is a direct target of miR-34b-5p. In vitro, overexpression of miR-34b-5p accelerated the proliferation of ALV-J-infected cells by inducing the progression from G2 to S phase and it promoted cell migration. Ectopic expression of MDA5 inhibited ALV-J-infected cell proliferation, the cell cycle and cell migration, and knockdown of MDA5 promoted proliferation, the cell cycle and migration. In addition, during ALV-J infections, MDA5 can detect virus invasion and it triggers the MDA5 signaling pathway. MDA5 overexpression can activate the MDA5 signaling pathway, and thus it can inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of the ALV-J env gene and it can suppress virion secretion. In contrast, in response to the knockdown of MDA5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or an miR-34b-5p mimic, genes in the MDA5 signaling pathway were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of ALV-J env and the sample-to-positive ratio of virion in the supernatants were increased. This indicates that miR-34b-5p is able to trigger the MDA5 signaling pathway and affect ALV-J infections. Together, these results suggest that miR-34b-5p targets MDA5 to accelerate the proliferation and migration of ALV-J-infected cells, and it promotes ALV-J replication, via the MDA5 signaling pathway.
Project description:In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other reference strains of ALV. The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of GD150509, GD160403, GD160607, GDFX0601, and GDFX0602 were 7482 bp in length, whereas GDFX0603 was 7480 bp. They shared 99.7% to 99.8% identity with each other. Homology analysis showed that the gag, pol, long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the transmembrane region (gp37) of the env genes of the 6 viruses were well conserved to endogenous counterpart sequences (>97.8%). However, the gp85 genes displayed high variability with any known chicken ALV strains. Growth kinetics of DF-1 cells infected with the isolated ALV showed viral titers that were lower than those infected with the GD13 (ALV-A), CD08 (ALV-B), and CHN06 (ALV-J) on day 7 post-infection. The infected Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens could produce continuous viremia, atrophy of immune organs, growth retardation and no tumors were observed. These subgroup ALVs are unique and may be common in south China. The results suggested that updating the control and eradication program of exogenous ALV for yellow feather broiler breeders in south China needs to be considered because of the emergence of the new subgroup viruses.
Project description:The interactions between the subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and soluble forms of the ALV(A) receptor Tva were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo by quantitating the ability of the soluble Tva proteins to inhibit ALV(A) entry into susceptible cells. Two soluble Tva proteins were tested: the 83-amino-acid Tva extracellular region fused to two epitope tags (sTva) or fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G heavy chain (sTva-mIgG). Replication-competent ALV-based retroviral vectors with subgroup B or C env were used to deliver and express the two soluble tv-a (stva) genes in avian cells. In vitro, chicken embryo fibroblasts or DF-1 cells expressing sTva or sTva-mIgG proteins were much more resistant to infection by ALV(A) ( approximately 200-fold) than were control cells infected by only the vector. The antiviral effect was specific for ALV(A), which is consistent with a receptor interference mechanism. The antiviral effect of sTva-mIgG was positively correlated with the amount of sTva-mIgG protein. In vivo, the stva genes were delivered and expressed in line 0 chicken embryos by the ALV(B)-based vector RCASBP(B). Viremic chickens expressed relatively high levels of stva and stva-mIgG RNA in a broad range of tissues. High levels of sTva-mIgG protein were detected in the sera of chickens infected with RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG. Viremic chickens infected with RCASBP(B) alone, RCASBP(B)stva, or RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG were challenged separately with ALV(A) and ALV(C). Both sTva and sTva-mIgG significantly inhibited infection by ALV(A) (95 and 100% respectively) but had no measurable effect on ALV(C) infection. The results of this study indicate that a soluble receptor can effectively block infection of at least some retroviruses and demonstrates the utility of the ALV experimental system in characterizing the mechanism(s) of viral entry.