An oil containing EPA and DHA from transgenic Camelina sativa to replace marine fish oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
ABSTRACT: New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from a transgenic Camelina sativa in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) containing low levels of fishmeal (35 %) and fish oil (10 %), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on intestinal transcriptome, tissue fatty acid profile and health of farmed salmon. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 12-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either a blend of fish oil/rapeseed oil (FO), wild-type camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source. The DCO diet did not affect any of the fish performance or health parameters studied. Analyses of the mid and hindgut transcriptomes showed only mild effects on metabolism. Flesh of fish fed the DCO diet accumulated almost double the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA than fish fed the FO or WCO diets, indicating that these oils from transgenic oilseeds offer the opportunity to increase the n-3 LC-PUFA in farmed fish to levels comparable to those found twelve years ago.
Project description:Vegetable oils (VO) are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but are limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15 % total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed for 11-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either fish oil (FO), wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic Camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source to evaluate fish performance, nutrient digestibility, tissue n-3 LC-PUFA, and metabolic impact determined by liver transcriptome analysis. The DCO diet did not affect any of the performance or health parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of EPA and DHA compared to the WCO diet. The level of total n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in all the tissues of DCO-fed fish than in WCO-fed fish with levels in liver similar to those in fish fed FO. Endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic activity was observed in fish fed both the Camelina oil diets as indicated by the liver transcriptome and levels of intermediate metabolites such as docosapentaenoic acid, with data suggesting that the dietary combination of EPA and DHA inhibited desaturation and elongation activities. Expression of genes involved in phospholipid and triacylglycerol metabolism followed a similar pattern in fish fed DCO and WCO despite the difference in n-3 LC-PUFA contents.
Project description:Facing a bottleneck in the growth of aquaculture, and a gap in the supply and demand of the highly beneficial omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), sustainable alternatives to the traditional feeds are much needed. Therefore, in this trial, an oil extracted from newly designed plant, Camelina sativa, was tested for its n-3 replacement capabilities, using three different groups of post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which were fed for 12 weeks three experimental diets; a control diet containing a blend of fish oil (5 %) and rapeseed oil (15 %) (FO), a wild-type Camelina (20 %) (WCO) and the transgenic Camelina oil (20 %) (DCO), all of them having the same basal composition. By comparing them, an overall evaluation of fish performance, fatty acid profile, feeds digestibility and gene expression was done. In the context of the new transgenic diet, there were no negative effects on the growth, survival rate or health of the fish. The whole fish n-3 levels were highest in the DCO-fed fish with EPA+DHA levels almost double compared to FO-fed fish and more than double when compared to WCO-fed ones, clearly suggesting the efficiency of the Camelina oil in providing competitive levels of n-3 LC-PUFA compared to the commercial “gold standard”.
Project description:The use of high levels of marine fish oil in aquafeeds is a non-sustainable practice. However, more sustainable oils sources from terrestrial plants do not contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Consequently, feeds based on conventional vegetable oils reduce n-3 LC-PUFA levels in farmed fish. Therefore, the aquaculture industry desperately requires new, sustainable oil sources that contain high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in order to supply the increasing demand for fish and seafood while maintaining the high nutritional quality of the farmed product. One approach to the renewable supply of n-3 LC-PUFA is metabolic engineering oilseed crops with the capacity to synthesize these essential fatty acids in seeds. In the present study, the oilseed Camelina sativa has been transformed with algal genes encoding the n-3 biosynthetic pathway and expression restricted to the seeds via seed-specific promoters to produce an oil containing > 20% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This oil was investigated as a replacement for marine fish oil in feeds for post-smolt Atlantic salmon. In addition, this study with EPA-rich oil will contribute to our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control and regulation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production from EPA, and will thus better inform our understanding of this key part of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway.
Project description:Currently, the only sustainable alternatives for dietary fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds are vegetable oils (VO) that are devoid of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Entirely new sources of n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids through de novo production is a potential solution to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa,was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil (ECO) with > 20 % EPA and its potential to substitute for FO in Atlantic salmon feeds was tested. Fish were fed one of three experimental diets containing FO, wild-type camelina oil (WCO) or ECO as the sole lipid sources for 7-weeks. Inclusion of ECO did not affect any of the performance parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of individual n-6 and n-3 PUFA compared to dietary WCO. High levels of EPA were maintained in brain, liver and intestine (pyloric caeca), and levels of DPA and DHA were increased in liver and intestine of fish fed ECO compared to fish fed WCO likely due to increased LC-PUFA biosynthesis based on up-regulation of the genes. Fish fed WCO and ECO showed slight lipid accumulation within hepatocytes similar to that with WCO, although not significantly different to fish fed FO. The regulation of a small number of genes could be attributed to the specific effect of ECO (311 features) with metabolism being the most affected category. The EPA oil from transgenic Camelina (ECO) could be used as a substitute for FO, however it is a hybrid oil containing both FO (EPA) and VO (18:2n-6) fatty acid signatures that resulted in similarly mixed metabolic and physiological responses.
Project description:The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid.
Project description:Liver transcriptomes of Atlantic salmon families with contrasting flesh n-3 LC-PUFA profiles, and all fed the same 100% vegetable oil replacement diet, were compared by microarray analysis (Agilent oligoarray platform). The objective was to identify gene pathways and molecular mechanisms which might explain differences in flesh n-3 LC-PUFA content, independent of total lipid deposition, when salmon families are fed the same LC-PUFA deficient diet. A factorial design was chosen in which families containing higher and lower n-3 LC-PUFA relative levels were compared at similar total lipid percentages in flesh.
Project description:For aquaculture of carnivorous marine species to continue to expand, dietary fish oil must be replaced with more sustainable vegetable oil alternatives. Most vegetable oils are rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), specifically 18:2n-6, and their inclusion in feeds reduces the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio of the fish flesh potentially compromising its nutritional quality. Few vegetable oils are rich in n-3 PUFA but one of these, Camelina oil (CO) is unique in that, in addition to high 18:3n-3 and a high n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio, it also contains substantial levels of C20 and C22 monoenes, similar to fish oil. Cod (initial weight ~0.8 Kg) were fed for 10 weeks with diets in which fish oil was replaced with graded amounts (0 – 100%) of CO. Growth performance, feed efficiency and fish biometric indices (HSI and VSI) was not significantly affected by increasing dietary CO. Lipid levels of liver tended to increase and those of flesh, decrease, with increasing dietary CO although the data were largely not statistically significant. Reflecting the diet, tissue n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) levels significantly decreased whereas levels of 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 increased with increasing inclusion of dietary CO. Dietary replacement of FO by Camelina oil did not appear to induce major metabolic changes in cod intestinal tissue, but rather potentially affected rates of cellular proliferation and death as well as induce changes in the structural properties of the intestinal muscle, most likely leading to different rates of tissue regeneration and/or repair, as well as changes in contractile activity or mechanical characteristics. Our results do not allow us to conclude on the underlying biological reasons explaining these molecular effects but given the important role of the intestine in overall nutrient absorption, further attention should be given to this organ in the future when examining effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oils.
Project description:N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3LC-PUFA) are essential components of vertebrate membrane lipids and are now at critically low levels in modern Western diets. The main human dietary source for n-3LC-PUFA is fish and seafood, and over 50% of global fish production is currently supplied by aquaculture. However, increasing pressure to include vegetable oils, which are devoid of n-3LC-PUFA, in aquaculture feeds reduces their content in farmed fish flesh. The aim of this investigation was to infer mechanisms determining flesh n-3LC-PUFA content in Atlantic salmon. The TRAITS / SGP Atlantic salmon 17k feature cDNA microarray (ArrayExpress accession: A-MEXP-1790) was used to compare hepatic mRNA expression in 8 families, reared under common conditions, which exhibited contrasting high and low flesh n-3LC-PUFA levels at harvest. The microarray interrogations incorporated a common pooled reference design, comprising a total of 16 hybridisations (8 families x 2 - dye swap). Each family sample comprised RNA pooled from six sibs.
Project description:The effect of different diets (i.e. fish oil based vs vegetable oil based) on liver transcription profiles over the life history stages (freshwater and marine phases) of cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were explored. Two groups of fish were raised from first feeding on different lipid containing diets; a) the standard 100% fish oil based diet, the other enriched with a blend of vegetable oils (75%) + fish oil (25%). Liver samples were taken from fish at four time points: two freshwater phase (as parr 36 weeks post hatch (wph); as pre-smolts, 52 wph) and two marine phase ( as post-smolts 55 wph; and as adult fish , 86 wph). A total of 96 cDNA microarray hybridisations - TRAITS / SGP Atlantic salmon 17k feature cDNA microarray - were performed ( 2 diets x 4 time points x 6 biological replicates x 2 -dye swap) using a comon pooled reference contol design.
Project description:Elevated circulating triglycerides, which are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, can be targeted by treatment with fenofibrate or fish oil. To gain insight into underlying mechanisms, we carried out a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis of the effect of 2 week treatment withfenofibrate and fish oil in mice. Plasma triglycerides were significantly decreased byfenofibrate (-49.1%) and fish oil (-21.8%), whereas plasma cholesterol was increased by fenofibrate (+29.9%) and decreased by fish oil (-32.8%). Levels of various phospholipid species were specifically decreased by fish oil, while levels of Krebs cycle intermediates were increased specifically by fenofibrate. Plasma levels of many amino acids were altered by fenofibrate and to a lesser extent by fish oil. Both fenofibrate and fish oil upregulated genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, and downregulated genes involved in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. Significant overlap in gene regulation by fenofibrate and fish oil was observed, reflecting their property as high or low affinity agonist for PPARα, respectively. Fenofibrate specifically downregulated genes involved in complement cascade and inflammatory response. Fish oil specifically downregulated genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis, and upregulated genes involved in amino acid and arachidonic acid metabolism. Taken together, the data indicate that despite being similarly potent towards modulating plasma free fatty acids, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, fish oil causes modest changes in gene expression likely via activation of multiple mechanistic pathways, whereas fenofibrate causes pronounced gene expression changes via a single pathway, reflecting the key difference between nutritional and pharmacological intervention. Expression profiling of liver from mice fed control diet, fish oil or fenofibrate for 2 weeks.