Response of Escherichia coli after Phage T4 Ghost Adsorption
ABSTRACT: After the attachment of the lytic phage T4 to Escherichia coli cells, 1% E. coli cells showed an approximately 40-fold increase in mutant frequency. They were designated as mutator A global transcriptome analysis using microarrays was conducted to determine the difference between parental strain and mutators, and the host responce after adsorption of the phage and the ghost.
Project description:After the attachment of the lytic phage T4 to Escherichia coli cells, 1% E. coli cells showed an approximately 40-fold increase in mutant frequency. They were designated as mutator A global transcriptome analysis using microarrays was conducted to determine the difference between parental strain and mutators.
Project description:Transcriptional profiles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 exposed to cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins (PACs) were determined. Our results indicate that bacteria grown on media supplemented with PACs were iron-deprived. To our knowledge, this is the first time that PACs have been shown to induce a state of iron-limitation in this bacterium. Cultures of E. coli CFT073 were streaked onto LB agar plates and incubated (37°C, 24 h). A single colony was inoculated into 150 mL of LB broth. Three inoculated flasks contained LB broth alone (controls), and three inoculated flasks were supplemented with cranberry PACs (100 µg/mL). After incubation (37°C, 5 h, 200 rpm to mid-log growth phase), bacteria were harvested for RNA extraction.
Project description:Drugs targeting DNA and RNA in mammalian cells or viruses can also affect bacteria present in the host and thereby induce the bacterial SOS system. This has the potential to increase mutagenesis and the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Here we have examined nucleoside analogues (NAs) commonly used in anti-viral and anti-cancer therapies for potential effects on mutagenesis in Escherichia coli using the Rifampicin mutagenicity assay. To further explore the mode of action of the NAs, we appliedanalyzed metabolome and proteome of E.coli deletion mutants., and metabolome and proteome analyses. Five out of the thirteen NAs examined, including three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and two anti-cancer drugs, increased the mutation frequency in E. coli more than 25-fold at doses that were within reported plasma concentration range (Pl.CR), but that did not affect bacterial growth. We show that the SOS response is induced and that the increase in mutation frequency is mediated by the TLS polymerase Pol V. Quantitative mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling did not reveal large changes in nucleoside phosphate or other central carbon metabolite pools, which suggests that the SOS induction is an effect of increased replicative stress. Our results suggest that NAs/NRTIs can contribute to the development of AMR.
Project description:Addressing the functionality of predicted genes remains an enormous challenge in the post-genomic era. A prime example of genes lacking functional assignments are the poorly conserved, early expressed genes of lytic bacteriophages, whose products are involved in the subversion of the host metabolism. In this study, we focused on the composition of important macromolecular complexes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa involved in transcription, DNA replication, fatty acid biosynthesis, RNA regulation, energy metabolism and cell division, during infection with members of seven distinct clades of lytic phages. Using affinity purifications of these host protein complexes coupled to mass spectrometric analyses, 37 host complex-associated phage proteins could be identified. Importantly, eight of these show an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth upon episomal expression, suggesting that these phage proteins are potentially involved in hijacking the host complexes. Using complementary protein-protein interaction assays, we further mapped the inhibitory interaction of gp12 of phage 14-1 to the α subunit of the RNA polymerase. Together, our data demonstrate the powerful use of interactomics to unravel the biological role of hypothetical phage proteins, which constitute an enormous untapped source of novel antibacterial proteins.
Project description:Transcriptional profiles of Escherichia coli MG1655 in mixed culture with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 showed a number of E. coli genes to be upregulated including purA-F and other genes associated with purine synthesis. In contrast, genes associated with pyrimidine synthesis were unaffected. Competition experiments in both planktonic and biofilm cultures, using three purine synthesis mutants, purD, purH, and purT showed little difference in E. coli survival from the parent strain. As purines are components of the cell signals, cAMP and c-di-GMP, we conducted competition experiments with E. coli mutants lacking adenylate cyclase (cyaA), cAMP phosphodiesterase (cpdA), and the catabolite receptor protein (crp), as well as ydeH, an uncharacterized gene that has been associated with c-di-GMP synthesis. Survival of the cyaA and crp mutants during co-culture were significantly less than the parent strain. Supplementation of the media with 1mM cAMP could restore survival of the cyaA mutant but not the crp mutant. In contrast, survival of the cpdA mutant was similar to the parent strain. Survival of the ydeH mutant was moderately less than the parent, suggesting that cAMP has more impact on E. coli mixed culture growth than c-di-GMP. Addition of 1 mM indole restored the survival of both the cyaA and crp mutations. Mutants in genes for tryptophan synthesis (trpE) and indole production (tnaA) showed a loss of competition and recovery through indole supplementation, comparable to the cyaA and crp mutants. Overall, these results suggest indole and cAMP as major contributing factors to E. coli growth in mixed culture. Two replicates of LB grown E. coli ZK126 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 were grown in pure culture at 37C to an OD of 0.3 (log phase) and then mixed 1:1 and incubated for an additional 45 min. RNA was extracted, purified, reverse transcribed to cDNA and then analyzed on E. coli and P. aeruginosa chips from Affymetrix. Expression profiles were compared to pure culture E. coli and P. aeruginosa grown on LB.
Project description:Transcription profile of Escherichia coli cells in mono-species pure biofilms was compared to that of E. coli cells in E. coli-Stenotrophomonas maltophilia dual-species biofilms. E. coli cells were separated from dual-species biofilms before total RNA extraction to eliminate possible cross hybridization from S. maltophilia transcripts. The separation method was developed by combining the use of reagent RNAlater and immuno-magnetic separation. Pure E. coli biofilms were processed with the same separation protocol before RNA extraction. Two condition experiments: E. coli mono-species biofilm vs E. coli in mixed-species biofilm. Two biological replicates with independently grown and harvested biofilms. Each biological replicate has two or three technical replicates of hybridization on microarray slides. Each slide has three built-in replicates for each probe.
Project description:PhoP is considered a regulator of virulence despite being conserved in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. While Escherichia coli strains represent both non-pathogenic commensal isolates and numerous virulent pathotypes, the PhoP virulence regulator has only been studied in commensal E. coli. To better understand how conserved transcription factors contribute to virulence, we characterized PhoP in pathogenic E. coli. Loss of phoP significantly attenuated E. coli during extraintestinal infection. This was not surprising since we demonstrated that PhoP differentially regulated the transcription of >600 genes. In addition to survival at acidic pH and resistance to polymyxin B, PhoP was required for repression of motility and oxygen-independent changes in the expression of primary dehydrogenase and terminal reductase respiratory chain components. All phenotypes have in common a reliance on an energized membrane. Thus, we hypothesized that PhoP mediated these effects by regulating genes that generate a proton motive force. Indeed, bacteria lacking PhoP exhibited a hyper-polarized membrane, and dissipation of the transmembrane electrochemical gradient increased the susceptibility of the phoP mutant to acidic pH, while inhibiting respiratory generation of the proton gradient restored resistance to antimicrobial peptides independent of lipopolysaccharide modification. These findings demonstrate a connection between PhoP, virulence, and the energized state of the membrane. Comparison of gene expression between wild-type CFT073 and a CFT073 phoP deletion mutant during logarithmic phase growth in LB medium. Three biological replicates were compared from each strain.
Project description:Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli was significantly inhibited when co-cultured with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in static systems. Genes of E. coli involved in species interactions with S. maltophilia were identified in order to allow the study of the mechanisms of inhibited E. coli biofilm formation in co-culture. A total of 89 and 108 genes were identified as differentially expressed in mixed species cultures when growing as biofilm and as planktonic cultures, respectively, compared to the counterpart of pure cultured E. coli. Differential expression of certain identified genes was confirmed using E. coli reporter strains combined with single-cell based flow cytometry analysis. Co-culture with S. maltophilia affected genes involved in metabolism, signal transduction, cell wall composition, and biofilm formation of E. coli. Several selected genes were further confirmed as affecting E. coli biofilm formation in mixed species cultures with S. maltophilia. The data suggest that these genes were involved in species interactions between E. coli and S. maltophilia. This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. Refer to individual Series.
Project description:Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been recognized as an efficient approach for top-down proteomics recently for its high-capacity separation and highly sensitive detection of proteoforms. However, the commonly used collision-based dissociation methods often cannot provide extensive fragmentation of proteoforms for thorough characterization. Activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD), that combines infrared photoactivation concurrent with ETD, has shown better performance for proteoform fragmentation than higher energy-collisional dissociation (HCD) and standard ETD. Here, we present the first application of CZE-AI-ETD on an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer for large-scale top-down proteomics of Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. CZE-AI-ETD outperformed CZE-ETD regarding proteoform and protein identifications (IDs). CZE-AI-ETD reached comparable proteoform and protein IDs with CZE-HCD. CZE-AI-ETD tended to generate better expectation values (E-values) of proteoforms than CZE-HCD and CZE-ETD, indicating higher quality of MS/MS spectra from AI-ETD respecting the number of sequence-informative fragment ions generated. CZE-AI-ETD showed great reproducibility regarding the proteoform and protein IDs with relative standard deviations less than 4% and 2% (n=3). Coupling size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to CZE-AI-ETD identified 3028 proteoforms and 387 proteins from E. coli cells with 1% spectrum-level and 5% proteoform-level false discovery rates. The data represents the largest top-down proteomics dataset using the AI-ETD method so far. Single-shot CZE-AI-ETD of one SEC fraction identified 957 proteoforms and 253 proteins. N-terminal truncations, signal peptide cleavage, N-terminal methionine removal and various post-translational modifications including protein N-terminal acetylation, methylation, S-thiolation, disulfide bonds, and lysine succinylation were detected.
Project description:Among colicin producing E. coli, colicin M producing strains are the most frequently present in natural populations. Bacteria must be able to sense and respond to unfavourable conditions, resulting in adaptive responses. To gain insight into colicin M ecological role and the purposes related to antimicrobial therapy, the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of colicin M on E. coli whole genome transcription was investigated. We used microarray analysis to follow differential gene expression in E. coli upon colicin M exposure. Colicin M inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis altering expression of genes involved in envelope stress, osmotic and other stresses, exopolysaccharide prodoction, biofilm formation, and cell motility. A sub-lethal concentration of colicin M was used to treat E. coli MG1655 cultures at an early logarithmic phase. The experiments were performed in parallel with untreated control E. coli MG1655 cultures. Total RNA was extracted after 30 min and 60 min treatment with colicin M and used for hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.