RNA-seq of hippocampal samples from IL-18KO/APP/PS1 , WT, IL-18KO, and APP/PS1 mice.
ABSTRACT: The goal of the experiment was to understand the role of IL-18 in Alzheimers disease. Gene expression was examined in the hippocampus of wild type mice and the APP/PS1 mice (which are a mouse model for Alzheimers disease) that either encoded IL-18 or had the IL-18 gene knocked out.
Project description:With the criterion of 2-fold cutoff, 7 miRNAs were upregulated and 7 miRNAs were downregulated in APP/PS1 hippocampal tissues compared with WT hippocampal tissues Microarray analysis of miRNAs was performed on pooled hippocampal tissues from WT (n=16) and APP/PS1 mice (n=16) at E14
Project description:RNA samples from the cerebral cortex of APP/PS1 and WT mouse littermates aged 3, 6 and 12 months were analyzed using the Affymetrix Genechip Mouse Gene 1.1 ST Array. The APP-PS1 transgenic mouse express the human mutated forms APPswe and PS1dE9. This is a good model of familial Alzheimer Disease because it reproduces several features of the disease as β-amyloid deposits throughout the brain and exhibit memory impairment by the end of the sixth month and is a simple model to study the molecular pathways. The aim of this study is to identify dysregulation of inflammation pathways in order to understand shifts of inflammation responses with disease progression.
Project description:Sleep deprivation (SD) is the hallmark of modern society and may increase risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear how SD facilitates early cognitive impairments observed in AD models, as the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we aim to investigate SD-induced cellular and molecular alterations in hippocampus of young APP/PS1 mice and whether jujuboside A (JuA) treatment could negate these alterations. Our results reveal that although SD causes spatial memory impairments in both genotypes, SD decreases frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs and pCREB levels in WT, but increases frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs, NMDAR, GluR1, pCaMKII (?, ?) and decreases CREB levels in APP/PS1 mice, implicating that SD may facilitate abnormalities in young APP/PS1 mice via enhancing neuronal excitability. Moreover, JuA suppresses SD-induced enhancement of mEPSCs and prevents memory impairment in APP/PS1 mice. Further, whole-cell puff experiment suggests that JuA may function to activate GABAergic inhibition to reduce SD-induced enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in APP/PS1 mice. The present study reveals that sleep loss induces spatial memory impairment in an AD mouse model by disrupting the excitatory signaling pathway, and JuA prevents this via GABAergic mechanism.
Project description:APP/PS1 double transgenic mice expressing human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) demonstrate robust brain amyloid beta (A?) peptide containing plaque deposition, increased markers of oxidative stress, behavioral dysfunction, and proinflammatory gliosis. On the other hand, lack of growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone due to a recessive mutation in the Prop 1 gene (Prop1df) in Ames dwarf mice results in a phenotype characterized by potentiated antioxidant mechanisms, improved learning and memory, and significantly increased longevity in homozygous mice. Based on this, we hypothesized that a similar hormone deficiency might attenuate disease changes in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. To test this idea, APP/PS1 mice were crossed to the Ames dwarf mouse line. APP/PS1, wild-type, df/+, df/df, df/+/APP/PS1, and df/df/APP/PS1 mice were compared at 6 months of age through behavioral testing and assessing amyloid burden, reactive gliosis, and brain cytokine levels. df/df mice demonstrated lower brain growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations. This correlated with decreased astrogliosis and microgliosis in the df/df/APP/PS1 mice and, surprisingly, reduced A? plaque deposition and A? 1-40 and A? 1-42 concentrations. The df/df/APP/PS1 mice also demonstrated significantly elevated brain levels of multiple cytokines in spite of the attenuated gliosis. These data indicate that the df/df/APP/PS1 line is a unique resource in which to study aging and resistance to disease and suggest that the affected pituitary hormones may have a role in regulating disease progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Several familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) mutations within the transmembrane region of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) increase the A?42/40 ratio without increasing total A? production. In the present study, we analyzed the impact of FAD mutations and ?-secretase modulators (GSMs) that alter the A?42/40 ratio on APP C-terminus (CT) positioning relative to the membrane, reasoning that changes in the alignment of the APP intramembranous domain and presenilin 1 (PS1) may impact the PS1/?-secretase cleavage site on APP. RESULTS: By using a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based technique, fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), we show that A?42/40 ratio-modulating factors which target either APP substrate or PS1/?-secretase affect proximity of the APP-CT to the membrane and change PS1 conformation. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we propose that there is a reciprocal relationship between APP-CT positioning relative to the membrane and PS1 conformation, suggesting that factors that modulate either APP positioning in the membrane or PS1 conformation could be exploited therapeutically.
Project description:To investigate whether intracellular amyloid β (iAβ) induces toxicity in wild type (WT) and APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.Different forms of Aβ aggregates were microinjected into cultured WT or APP/PS1 mouse hippocampal neurons. TUNEL staining was performed to examine neuronal cell death. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) were measured by MitoSOXRed mitochondrial superoxide indicator.Crude, monomer and protofibril Aβ induced more toxicity in APP/PS1 neurons than in WT neurons. ROS are involved in mediating the vulnerability of APP/PS1 neurons to iAβ toxicity.Oxidative stress may mediate cell death induced by iAβ in neurons.
Project description:Major characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include deposits of ?-amyloid (A?) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate A?-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of A? plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the A? plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD.
Project description:Increasing evidence emphasizes the protective role of Eph receptors in synaptic function in the pathological development of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, their roles in the regulation of hippocampal astrocytes remain largely unknown. Here, we directly investigated the function of astroglial EphB2 on synaptic plasticity in APP/PS1 mice. Using cell isolation and transgene technologies, we first isolated hippocampal astrocytes and evaluated the expression levels of ephrinB ligands and EphB receptors. Then, we stereotaxically injected EphB2-Flox-AAV into the hippocampus of GFAP-cre/APP/PS1 mice and further evaluated hippocampal synaptic plasticity and astroglial function. Interestingly, astrocytic EphB2 expression was significantly increased in APP/PS1 mice in contrast to its expression profile in neurons. Moreover, depressing this astroglial EphB2 upregulation enhanced hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which results from harmful D-serine release. These results provide evidence of the different expression profiles and function of EphB2 between astrocytes and neurons in AD pathology.
Project description:General theory of declarative memory formation posits a cortical-hippocampal dialog during which hippocampal ripple oscillations support information transfer and long-term consolidation of hippocampus dependent memories. Brain dementia, as Alzheimer disease (AD), is accompanied by memory loss and inability to form new memories. A large body of work has shown variety of mechanisms acting at cellular and molecular levels which can putatively play an important role in the impairment of memory formation. However, far less is known about changes occurring at the network-level activity patterns that support memory processing. Using freely moving APP/PS1 mice, a model of AD, we undertook a study to unravel the alterations of the activity of hippocampal and cortical circuits during generation of ripples in the transgenic and wild-type mice undergoing encoding and consolidation of spatial information. We report that APP/PS1 animals are able to consolidate spatial memory despite a major deficit of hippocampal ripples occurrence rate and learning dependent dynamics. We propose that these impairments may be compensated by an increase of the occurrence of cortical ripples and reorganization of cortical-hippocampal interaction.