Transcription profiling by array of liver from diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon fed with marine or vegetable-based diet during early development
ABSTRACT: To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon. In the present study we explored the molecular mechanisms occurring in the liver of salmon when challenged with a plant-based diet in order to determine the metabolic processes affected, and the effect of ploidy. Microarray analysis revealed that nutritional history had a major impact on the expression of genes. Key pathways of intermediary metabolism were up-regulated, including oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis and fatty acid metabolism. Other differentially expressed pathways affected by diet included protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, RNA transport, endocytosis and purine metabolism. The interaction between diet and ploidy also had an effect on the hepatic transcriptome of salmon. The biological pathways with the highest number of genes affected by this interaction were related to gene transcription and translation, and cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation, communication and membrane trafficking. The present study revealed that nutritional programming induced changes in a large number of metabolic processes in Atlantic salmon, which may be associated with the improved fish performance and nutrient utilisation demonstrated previously. In addition, differences between diploid and triploid salmon were found, supporting recent data that indicate nutritional requirements of triploid salmon may differ from those of their diploid counterparts.
Project description:Current commercially available feeds for salmon are predominantly made of plant ingredients, with consequent changes to the composition and contents of a range of nutrients and other components in the diet. There are concerns that, with these major changes in raw materials, new feeds will affect not only the composition and contents of nutrients, but also the bioavailability and, combined with the limited knowledge of micronutrient requirements for Atlantic salmon, this might impact growth performance and health of the fish. The present study investigated the effects of graded levels of a micronutrient package supplemented to feeds formulated with low levels of marine ingredients and fed to diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon throughout the freshwater phase. Specifically, fish were fed three diets containing low levels of FM and FO and identical in formulation other than being supplemented with 3 levels (L1, 100 %; L2, 200 % and L3, 400 %) of a micronutrient mix formulated as a modification of current nutrient levels reported for salmon. Duplicate groups of diploid and triploid parr were fed the experimental diets from around 30 g to seawater transfer and the effects on growth performance, feed efficiency, biochemical composition, liver histology, hepatic gene expression (transcriptome) and smoltification efficiency determined. Microarray analysis revealed that the hepatic transcriptome profile of diploid fish fed diet L2 was more similar to that observed in triploids fed diet L3 than to those fed L2, suggesting that micronutrient requirements of triploid salmon may differ from levels accepted in diploid salmon. Different levels of micronutrient supplementation affected the expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular sterol biosynthesis pathways (steroid and terpenoid backbone synthesis) were down-regulated in both L2-fed diploids and L3-fed triploids when compared with diet L1-fed diploids and triploids, respectively. Gene sets analysis showed an up-regulation of genes involved in immune processes in triploid salmon fed diet L3. Another biological category affected by diet in triploid salmon was genetic information processing. In fish fed diet L3 down-regulation of RNA degradation, proteasome, RNA polymerase, spliceosome and ribosome was observed, suggesting a decrease in protein turnover in this group, which may indicate a decrease in energy expenditure. In addition, one-carbon metabolism was affected by diet in diploid and triploid salmon.
Project description:This experiment was aimed at understanding transcriptional response to a plant protein diet in multiple tissues of Atlantic salmon. Agilent-based microarray platform with 4 x 44 K probes per slide (Salar_2; Agilent Design ID:025520) oligo microarray was used in this experiment. A dual-labelled experimental design was employed for the microarray hybridisations. aRNA from each experimental sample (Cy3 labelled) was competitively hybridised against a common pooled-reference sample (Cy5 labelled), which comprised equal amounts of aRNA from each of the samples used in the study. This design permits valid statistical comparisons across all treatments to be made. The entire experiment comprised 24 hybridisations - 3 tissues (mid intestine, liver, muscle) x 2 treatments (MP diet / PP diet) x 4 biological replicates.
Project description:There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. Little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) byg a cDNA microarray analysis. Post-smolt farmed salmon were reared for x weeks on diets where the FO component of the feed was replaced with one of three different VOs - rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO). RNA from five fish fed on each diet was extracted. A total of 20 cDNA microarray hybridisations - TRAITS / SGP Atlantic salmon 17k feature cDNA microarray - were performed - 4 diets (three VO + FO control) x 5 individuals - using a common pooled reference control design. Data were obtained from 19 of the 20 hybridisations.
Project description:The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid.
Project description:Atlantic salmon can synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) via activities of very long chain fatty acyl elongases (elovls) and fatty acyl desaturases (fads), albeit to a limited degree. Understanding molecular mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis and regulation is a pre-requisite for sustainable use of vegetable oils in aquafeeds as current sources of fish oils are unable to meet increasing demands for omega-3 PUFAs. By generating CRISPR-mediated elovl2 knockout, we have shown that elovl2 is crucial for multi-tissue synthesis of 22:6n-3 in vivo and endogenously synthesized PUFAs are important for transcriptional regulation of lipogenic genes in Atlantic salmon. The elovl2 knockouts showed reduced levels of 22:6n-3 and accumulation of 20:5n-3 and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) in the liver, brain and white muscle, suggesting inhibition of elongation. Additionally, elovl2-knockout salmon showed accumulation of 20:4n-6 in the brain and white muscle. The impaired synthesis of 22:6n-3 induced hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (srebp-1), fatty acid synthase-b, Δ6fad-a, Δ5fad and elovl5. Our study demonstrates key roles of elovl2 at two penultimate steps of PUFA synthesis in vivo and suggests Srebp-1 as a main regulator of PUFA synthesis in Atlantic salmon.
Project description:N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3LC-PUFA) are essential components of vertebrate membrane lipids and are now at critically low levels in modern Western diets. The main human dietary source for n-3LC-PUFA is fish and seafood, and over 50% of global fish production is currently supplied by aquaculture. However, increasing pressure to include vegetable oils, which are devoid of n-3LC-PUFA, in aquaculture feeds reduces their content in farmed fish flesh. The aim of this investigation was to infer mechanisms determining flesh n-3LC-PUFA content in Atlantic salmon. The TRAITS / SGP Atlantic salmon 17k feature cDNA microarray (ArrayExpress accession: A-MEXP-1790) was used to compare hepatic mRNA expression in 8 families, reared under common conditions, which exhibited contrasting high and low flesh n-3LC-PUFA levels at harvest. The microarray interrogations incorporated a common pooled reference design, comprising a total of 16 hybridisations (8 families x 2 - dye swap). Each family sample comprised RNA pooled from six sibs.
Project description:Concerns have arisen recently over the possible environmental effects of human pharmaceuticals. Although acute toxicities are low, the continuous discharge of pharmaceuticals into the aquatic environment, coupled with the fact that such compounds are selected for use on the basis of a strong pharmacological effect, means that sublethal effects on non-target organisms need to be seriously considered. The juvenile stages of Atlantic salmon are present in many northern European rivers which are also used for the discharge of domestic wastewaters likely to contain pharmaceuticals. One year old salmon parr were exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (5µg·/ L) of the antidepressant drug carbamazepine for five days and changes of mRNA expression in brain tissues were investigated by means of a custom 17k Atlantic salmon cDNA microarray. The TRAITS 17K Atlantic salmon cDNA microarray was employed. A dual-labelled experimental design was employed for the microarray hybridisations. Each experimental cDNA sample (Cy3 labeled) was competitively hybridised against a common pooled-reference sample (Cy5 labeled). The entire experiment comprised 10 hybridisations - 2 states (CBZ exposed / unexposed) × 1 time-point ( at 5 days) × 5 biological replicates (males only). Hybridisations were undertaken concurrently.
Project description:As part of a study investigating the effects of genotype on responses to sustainable feeds in Atlantic salmon, a microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome of two family groups, identified as 'Lean' or 'Fat' (based on flesh lipid content), which were fed a diet containing either 100% fish oil (FO) or 100% vegetable oil (VO) was undertaken. Cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism pathways that were differentially affected by diet depending on the genetic background of the fish were identified.<br><br>The TRAITS/SGP (v.2.1) salmon 17k cDNA microarray was used in this experiment. A dual-labelled experimental design was employed for the microarray hybridisations. aRNA from each experimental sample (Cy3 labelled) was competitively hybridised against a common pooled-reference sample (Cy5 labelled), which comprised equal amounts of aRNA from each of the samples used in the study. This design permits valid statistical comparisons across all treatments to be made. The entire experiment comprised 24 hybridisations - 2 lipid phenotypes (Lean/Fat) × 2 diets (FO/VO) × 6 biological replicates.
Project description:The use of high levels of marine fish oil in aquafeeds is a non-sustainable practice. However, more sustainable oils sources from terrestrial plants do not contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Consequently, feeds based on conventional vegetable oils reduce n-3 LC-PUFA levels in farmed fish. Therefore, the aquaculture industry desperately requires new, sustainable oil sources that contain high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in order to supply the increasing demand for fish and seafood while maintaining the high nutritional quality of the farmed product. One approach to the renewable supply of n-3 LC-PUFA is metabolic engineering oilseed crops with the capacity to synthesize these essential fatty acids in seeds. In the present study, the oilseed Camelina sativa has been transformed with algal genes encoding the n-3 biosynthetic pathway and expression restricted to the seeds via seed-specific promoters to produce an oil containing > 20% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This oil was investigated as a replacement for marine fish oil in feeds for post-smolt Atlantic salmon. In addition, this study with EPA-rich oil will contribute to our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control and regulation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production from EPA, and will thus better inform our understanding of this key part of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway.
Project description:The effect of different diets (i.e. fish oil based vs vegetable oil based) on liver transcription profiles over the life history stages (freshwater and marine phases) of cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were explored. Two groups of fish were raised from first feeding on different lipid containing diets; a) the standard 100% fish oil based diet, the other enriched with a blend of vegetable oils (75%) + fish oil (25%). Liver samples were taken from fish at four time points: two freshwater phase (as parr 36 weeks post hatch (wph); as pre-smolts, 52 wph) and two marine phase ( as post-smolts 55 wph; and as adult fish , 86 wph). A total of 96 cDNA microarray hybridisations - TRAITS / SGP Atlantic salmon 17k feature cDNA microarray - were performed ( 2 diets x 4 time points x 6 biological replicates x 2 -dye swap) using a comon pooled reference contol design.