Basal mRNA expression levels of single-cell derived FaDu clones with cisplatin-sensitive / resistant phenotype
ABSTRACT: The extent of intratumoral heterogeneity, the subclonal structures and the mechanisms of treatment-induced clonal selection by cisplatin was investigated in the squamous cell carcinoma cell line model FaDu. We picked 96 single cell-derived clones from the cisplatin-sensitive parental FaDu cell line. After expansion as separate cultures, these clones were tested for their sensitivity to CDDP. By this approach, we isolated individual cell clones that were primarily resistant (clones 5 & 78) and others that showed high sensitivity to CDDP (clones 46 & 54). Basal mRNA expression levels associated with CDDP sensitivity / resistance were determined in two independent microarray analyses.
Project description:Statins are used widely to lower serum cholesterol and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Growing evidence shows that statins also exhibit beneficial effects against cancers. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in lovastatin-induced cell death in Fadu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Lovastatin caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in FaDu cells. Lovastatin increased p21(cip/Waf1) level while the survivin level was decreased in the presence of lovastatin. Survivin siRNA reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in FaDu cells. Lovastatin induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and transcription factor p63. Lovastatin also caused p63 acetylation and increased p63 binding to survivin promoter region in FaDu cells. AMPK-p38MAPK signaling blockade abrogated lovastatin-induced p63 phosphorylation. Lovastatin's enhancing effect on p63 acetylation was reduced in HDAC3- or HDAC4- transfected cells. Moreover, transfection of cells with AMPK dominant negative mutant (AMPK-DN), HDAC3, HDAC4 or p63 siRNA significantly reduced lovastatin's effects on p21(cip/Waf1) and survivin. Furthermore, lovastatin inhibited subcutaneous FaDu xenografts growth in vivo. Taken together, lovastatin may activate AMPK-p38MAPK-p63-survivin cascade to cause FaDu cell death. This study establishes, at least in part, the signaling cascade by which lovastatin induces hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell death.
Project description:AIM: To investigate the apoptosis-inducing effect of trichostatin A (TSA) in the human lung adenocarcinoma cisplatin-resistant cell line (A549/CDDP) and to examine whether TSA can enhance sensitivity to cisplatin treatment and the underlying molecular mechanisms of such an enhancement. METHODS: Cell viability was evaluated using the Neutral Red assay. Apoptosis was assessed using Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry analysis. Protein expression was detected by Western blotting. To determine the role of Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) in TSA-induced apoptosis in the A549/CDDP cell line, cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-DAPK, which has a higher expression level of DAPK compared to endogenous expression, and DAPK activity was inhibited by both over-expression C-terminal fragment of DAPK which may competitive binding DAPK substrates to inhibit the function of DAPK and RNA interference. RESULTS: TSA induced apoptosis in both A549 cells and A549/CDDP cells. TSA enhanced the sensitivity of A549/CDDP cells to cisplatin, along with concomitant DAPK up-regulation. When DAPK was over-expressed, A549/CDDP cells became sensitive to cisplatin and the cytotoxicity of TSA could be increased. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of TSA could be alleviated by inhibition of DAPK activity by the expression of a recombinant C-terminal fragment of DAPK or RNA interference. CONCLUSION: TSA induced sensitivity to cisplatin treatment in cisplatin-resistant A549 cells. The up-regulation of DAPK is one of the mechanisms mediating sensitization to TSA-induced apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant cells.
Project description:The use of cisplatin (CDDP), the most common chemotherapy drug for head and neck cancer, is limited by its undesirable side effects, especially nephrotoxicity. We investigated ultrasound microbubbles (USMB) as a tool to increase the local intra-tumoral CDDP level while decreasing systemic CDDP cytotoxicity. We allowed CDDP to interact with human serum albumin and then sonicated the resulting CDDP?albumin complex to generate CDDP-loaded MBs (CDDP-MBs). We then established a head-and-neck tumor-bearing mouse model by implanting FaDu-fLuc/GFP cells into severe combined immunodeficiency mice and used IVIS® bioluminescence imaging to determine the tumor xenograft formation and size. Twice weekly (until Day 33), we administered CDDP only, CDDP + MBs + US, CDDP-MBs, or CDDP-MBs + US intravenously by tail-vein injection. The US treatment was administered at the tumor site immediately after injection. The in vivo systemic distribution of CDDP indicated that the kidney was the most vulnerable organ, followed by the liver, and then the inner ear. However, CDDP uptake into the kidney and liver was significantly decreased in both the CDDP-MBs and CDDP-MBs + US groups, suggesting that MB binding significantly reduced the systemic toxicity of CDDP. The CDDP-MBs + US treatment reduced the tumor size as effectively as conventional CDDP-only chemotherapy. Therefore, the combination of CDDP-MBs with ultrasound is effective and significantly attenuates CDDP-associated nephrotoxicity, indicating a promising clinical potential for this approach.
Project description:BACKGROUND Multi-drug resistance is one of the major problems limiting the efficacy of cisplatin (CDDP) in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression in drug-resistant cell lines plays an important role in liver cancer chemotherapy resistance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established stable Hep3B and 97L HCC cell strains resistant to CDDP, both in vitro and in vivo. A combination of microRNA microarray and RT-qPCR experiments were used to screen differentially expressed miRNAs in HCC cell strains. A CCK-8 assay was carried out to detect and calculate the survival rates and relative inhibitory rates. Oligonucleotide transfection was used to confirm the regulatory function of the miRNA in HCC drug resistance. RESULTS The IC50 of Hep3B/CDDP(v), 97L/CDDP(v), Hep3B/CDDP(s), and 97L/CDDP(s) were significantly higher than that of their parental cells. Moreover, the doubling time of drug-resistant cells increased compared with their parent cells. MiRCURYTM LNA Array (v 16.0) high-throughput tests of resistant cell models and their parent cells showed that there were 5 downregulated microRNAs in the 4 drug-resistant cell lines, and we chose hsa-miR-33a-5p as our target for further study. Oligonucleotide transfection showed that miR-33a-5p overexpression increased the cisplatin sensitivity of Hep3B/CDDP(v) and 97L/CDDP(v) drug-resistant cells and reduced their resistance. Additionally, inhibition of miR-33a-5p expression reduced cisplatin sensitivity in Hep3B and 97L and increased their drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the most downregulated microRNA, miR-33a-5p, can mediate the cisplatin resistance of HCC cells, providing a new and feasible direction for research into combatting liver cancer chemotherapy resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of the gynaecological cancers. Although cisplatin (CDDP) is an effective treatment for ovarian cancer, recurrence is frequent and leads to death. The objective was to explore the role and possible mechanisms of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) signalling in CDDP-treated ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: The upregulation of PAFR in CDDP-treated ovarian cancer cells was observed using realtime PCR and Western blot. The potential role of PAFR in modulating the CDDP sensitivity was assessed using a pharmacological inhibitor and siRNA knockdown. The PAFR-activated signalling pathways involved in cell responses to CDDP were assessed. RESULTS: Cisplatin induced increased PAFR expression in two ovarian cancer cell lines. The upregulation of PAFR by CDDP correlated with the time-dependent accumulation of NF-κB and HIF-1α in the nucleus. The inhibition of PAFR sensitised the ovarian cancer cells to CDDP. The PI3K and ERK pathways lie downstream of activated PAFR in CDDP-treated cells and their inhibition enhanced CDDP sensitivity. Finally, co-treatment with a PAFR antagonist (Ginkgolide B) and CDDP markedly reduced tumour growth in an in vivo model of ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings suggest that PAFR is a novel and promising therapeutic target for sensitising ovarian cancer cells to CDDP.
Project description:The protein lysine methyltransferase SMYD2 has recently emerged as a new enzyme modulate gene transcription or signaling pathways, and involved into tumor progression. However, the role of SMYD2 in drug resistant is still not known. Here, we found that inhibition of SMYD2 by specific inhibitor could enhance the cell sensitivity to cisplatin (CDDP), but not paclitaxel, NVB, and VCR in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Further study showed that SMYD2 and its substrates were overexpressed in NSCLC resistant cells, and the inhibition of SMYD2 or knockdown by specific siRNA could reverse the cell resistance to cisplatin treatment in NSCLC/CDDP cells. In addition, our data indicated that the inhibition or knockdown SMYD2 inhibit tumor sphere formation and reduce cell migration in NSCLC/CDDP cells, but not in NSCLC parental cells. Mechanistically, inhibition of SMYD2 could enhance p53 pathway activity and induce cell apoptosis through regulating its target genes, including p21, GADD45, and Bax. On the contrary, the sensitivity of cells to cisplatin was decreased after knockdown p53 or in p53 deletion NSCLC cells. The synergistically action was further confirmed by in vivo experiments. Taken together, our results demonstrate SMYD2 is involved into cisplatin resistance through regulating p53 pathway, and might become a promising therapeutic target for cisplatin resistance in NSCLC.
Project description:RNA binding motif protein 17 (RBM17) is a protein-coding gene. The protein encoded by RBM17 is involved in the regulation of alternative splicing and is overexpressed in cancer. The present study aimed to determine the effect of RBM17-knockdown in hypopharyngeal carcinoma FaDu cells using the lentivirus-mediated shRNA method. Cell proliferation was detected by an MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The results of the present study demonstrated that RBM17 expression was significantly decreased in FaDu cells infected with lentivirus-shRNA. Knockdown of RBM17 expression by shRNA significantly reduced cell proliferation, augmented cell apoptosis and arrested cells at the G2/M phase in FaDu cells. The results of the present study indicate that RBM17 serves a notable role in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Project description:The oxidation of guanine to 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is one of the most abundant and best studied oxidative DNA lesions and is commonly used as a biomarker for oxidative stress. Over the last decades, various methods for the detection of DNA oxidation products have been established and optimized. However, some of them lack sensitivity or are prone to artifact formation, while others are time-consuming, which hampers their application in screening approaches. In this study, we present a formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-based method to detect oxidative lesions in isolated DNA using a modified protocol of the automated version of the fluorimetric detection of alkaline DNA unwinding (FADU) method, initially developed for the measurement of DNA strand breaks (Moreno-Villanueva et al., 2009. BMC Biotechnol. 9, 39). The FADU-Fpg method was validated using a plasmid DNA model, mimicking mitochondrial DNA, and the results were correlated to 8-oxo-dG levels as measured by LC-MS/MS. The FADU-Fpg method can be applied to analyze the potential of compounds to induce DNA strand breaks and oxidative lesions, as exemplified here by treating plasmid DNA with the peroxynitrite-generating molecule Sin-1. Moreover, this method can be used to screen DNA-protective effects of antioxidant substances, as exemplified here for a small-molecule, i.e., uric acid, and a protein, i.e., manganese superoxide dismutase, both of which displayed a dose-dependent protection against the generation of oxidative DNA lesions. In conclusion, the automated FADU-Fpg method offers a rapid and reliable measurement for the detection of peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage in a cell-free system, rendering it an ideal method for screening the DNA-protective effects of antioxidant compounds.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is often treated with cisplatin (CDDP). Here, we report that two distinct poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors exhibited a hyperadditive combination effect with CDDP to kill NSCLC cells. A majority of CDDP-resistant cell lines and clones exhibited constitutively increased PARP expression and enzymatic activity. Cells with hyperactivated PARP initiated a DNA damage response and the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in response to pharmacological PARP inhibition or PARP1-targeting siRNAs. Transcriptome analysis depicted an unsupervised hierarchical clustering of NSCLC cells and CDDP resistant counterparts regarding to their response to PARP inhibitors. PARP-overexpressing tumors displayed elevated levels of intracellular poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which predicted the response to PARP inhibitors in vitro and in vivo more accurately than PARP expression itself. Thus, CDDP-resistant cancer cells develop a dependency to PARP, becoming susceptible to PARP inhibitor-induced apoptosis.
Project description:In this study, we identified microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in cisplatin (CDDP) resistance in bladder cancer (BCa). After establishing CDDP-resistant BCa cell lines (T24RC and EJ138RC), TaqMan arrays revealed that members of the miR-200 family (miR-200b, miR-200a and miR-429) were downregulated in T24RC as compared to parental T24 cells. miR-200b was associated with CDDP sensitivity in BCa cells, and its downregulation was associated with CpG island hypermethylation. Pharmacological demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored miR-200b expression, and the combination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine + CDDP strongly inhibited T24RC cell proliferation. Microarray analysis revealed that miR-200b + CDDP induced genes involved in CDDP sensitivity or cytotoxicity, including IGFBP3, ICAM1 and TNFSF10, in the resistant cells. Expression and DNA methylation of miR-200b were inversely associated in primary BCa, and low expression/high methylation was associated with poor overall survival. These results suggest downregulation of miR-200b is associated with CDDP resistance in BCa. Epigenetic silencing of miR-200b may be a marker of CDDP resistance and a useful therapeutic target for overcoming CDDP resistance in BCa.