Dietary carbohydrates in land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): impact on hepatic metabolism
ABSTRACT: A common-garden experiment was carried out to compare two genetically distinct strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets formulated with either high (CHO) or low (NoCHO) carbohydrate (starch). Twenty salmon from either a commercial farmed strain or a land-locked population were placed in two tanks (10 fish of each population in each tank) and fed either CHO or NoCHO feeds for 32 days. At the end of the experimental period fish were fasted for 8 h, euthanized and samples of blood and liver collected. Both diet and population had an effect on circulating glucose levels with land-locked salmon showing hypoglycaemia and dietary starch increasing this parameter. In contrast, land-locked salmon showed increased plasma triacylglycerol levels regardless of dietary treatment. This enhanced ability to metabolise dietary starch in land-locked compared to farmed salmon stock was also reflected at a molecular (gene) level as most of the metabolic pathways evaluated in the present study were mainly affected by the factor population rather than by diet. In particular, lower expression of genes for mitochondrial metabolism in land-locked salmon reflects drastic differences in energy metabolism between the populations. The liver transcriptome analysis highlighted some new gene candidates such as elovl6 to evaluate in future studies assessing the capacity of salmonids to cope with feeds containing higher levels of dietary starch.
Project description:The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid.
Project description:High-quality sources of protein for the formulation of feeds of carnivorous fish species such as Atlantic salmon are currently being sought. In an earlier screening trial we evaluated for the first time in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) the applicability of air-classified faba bean (Vicia faba) protein concentrate (BPC) inclusions in combination with soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fishmeal (FM) using parr as a model. Based on the results in parr in freshwater, the present study tested the hypothesis that BPC can effectively replace SPC as a dietary protein source in post-smolt Atlantic salmon in seawater. Herein we compare three dietary treatments, including BPC0 (no BPC), BPC20 (20% BPC) and BPC40 (40% BPC). Full details on diet formulation are available in the publication.
Project description:The present study aimed to determine the impact of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the metabolism of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The effects of diets containing increasing levels of DHA (1 g kg-1, 5 g kg-1, 10 g kg-1, 15 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1) on the liver transcriptome of post-smolt salmon was determined using regression analysis to elucidate patterns of gene expression and responses of specific metabolic pathways. Total RNA was isolated from liver of individual fish and analyzed using a custom 44K Atlantic salmon oligo-microarray. The expression of up to 911 unique annotated genes was significantly affected by dietary DHA inclusion relative to a low DHA reference diet. Using regression analysis, 797 unique genes were found with a significant linear correlation between expression level and dietary DHA. Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) identified a range of pathways that were significantly affected by dietary DHA content. Pathways that showed a significant response to dietary DHA level included those for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, steroid biosynthesis, glycan biosynthesis, protein export and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings suggest that in addition to clear roles in influencing lipid metabolic pathways, DHA also has key functional roles in other biosynthetic pathways distinct from lipid metabolism.
Project description:There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. Little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) byg a cDNA microarray analysis. Post-smolt farmed salmon were reared for x weeks on diets where the FO component of the feed was replaced with one of three different VOs - rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO). RNA from five fish fed on each diet was extracted. A total of 20 cDNA microarray hybridisations - TRAITS / SGP Atlantic salmon 17k feature cDNA microarray - were performed - 4 diets (three VO + FO control) x 5 individuals - using a common pooled reference control design. Data were obtained from 19 of the 20 hybridisations.
Project description:In the present study, a faba bean protein isolate (wBPC) with almost ~80 % crude protein produced by a wet process was investigated in feeds for Atlantic salmon in seawater. Four dietary treatments were tested including one treatment with high inclusion of fishmeal (400 g kg-1, named FM) and three treatments with low fishmeal (216 g kg-1) and increasing inclusions of faba bean protein concentrate (0, 70 and 140 g kg-1) substituting soy protein concentrate (236, 125 and 45 g kg-1), named SPC, BPC7 and BPC14 respectively.
Project description:The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality protein required as a sustainable substitute for the formulation of the feeds. Plants have arguably the greatest potential, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences of the substitution. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the metabolic response of salmon to increasing inclusion of air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC) in feeds as a replacement for soy (SPC). Specifically, we focused on the hepatic transcriptome response to dietary BPC inclusion over a range including commercially relevant levels (e.g. 11-22%) to levels giving impaired performance (45 %). The present investigation provided a profile of the salmon hepatic response to BPC indicating that fish tolerated moderate substitution of dietary SPC with BPC with no evident negative effects on the hepatic physiology of the fish. The analysis of extreme levels of substitution provided insights into physiological mechanisms that are significantly altered providing the basis for further investigation and improvement.
Project description:N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3LC-PUFA) are essential components of vertebrate membrane lipids and are now at critically low levels in modern Western diets. The main human dietary source for n-3LC-PUFA is fish and seafood, and over 50% of global fish production is currently supplied by aquaculture. However, increasing pressure to include vegetable oils, which are devoid of n-3LC-PUFA, in aquaculture feeds reduces their content in farmed fish flesh. The aim of this investigation was to infer mechanisms determining flesh n-3LC-PUFA content in Atlantic salmon. The TRAITS / SGP Atlantic salmon 17k feature cDNA microarray (ArrayExpress accession: A-MEXP-1790) was used to compare hepatic mRNA expression in 8 families, reared under common conditions, which exhibited contrasting high and low flesh n-3LC-PUFA levels at harvest. The microarray interrogations incorporated a common pooled reference design, comprising a total of 16 hybridisations (8 families x 2 - dye swap). Each family sample comprised RNA pooled from six sibs.
Project description:Currently, the only sustainable alternatives for dietary fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds are vegetable oils (VO) that are devoid of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Entirely new sources of n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids through de novo production is a potential solution to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa,was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil (ECO) with > 20 % EPA and its potential to substitute for FO in Atlantic salmon feeds was tested. Fish were fed one of three experimental diets containing FO, wild-type camelina oil (WCO) or ECO as the sole lipid sources for 7-weeks. Inclusion of ECO did not affect any of the performance parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of individual n-6 and n-3 PUFA compared to dietary WCO. High levels of EPA were maintained in brain, liver and intestine (pyloric caeca), and levels of DPA and DHA were increased in liver and intestine of fish fed ECO compared to fish fed WCO likely due to increased LC-PUFA biosynthesis based on up-regulation of the genes. Fish fed WCO and ECO showed slight lipid accumulation within hepatocytes similar to that with WCO, although not significantly different to fish fed FO. The regulation of a small number of genes could be attributed to the specific effect of ECO (311 features) with metabolism being the most affected category. The EPA oil from transgenic Camelina (ECO) could be used as a substitute for FO, however it is a hybrid oil containing both FO (EPA) and VO (18:2n-6) fatty acid signatures that resulted in similarly mixed metabolic and physiological responses.
Project description:Vegetable oils (VO) are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but are limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15 % total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed for 11-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either fish oil (FO), wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic Camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source to evaluate fish performance, nutrient digestibility, tissue n-3 LC-PUFA, and metabolic impact determined by liver transcriptome analysis. The DCO diet did not affect any of the performance or health parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of EPA and DHA compared to the WCO diet. The level of total n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in all the tissues of DCO-fed fish than in WCO-fed fish with levels in liver similar to those in fish fed FO. Endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic activity was observed in fish fed both the Camelina oil diets as indicated by the liver transcriptome and levels of intermediate metabolites such as docosapentaenoic acid, with data suggesting that the dietary combination of EPA and DHA inhibited desaturation and elongation activities. Expression of genes involved in phospholipid and triacylglycerol metabolism followed a similar pattern in fish fed DCO and WCO despite the difference in n-3 LC-PUFA contents.
Project description:To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon. In the present study we explored the molecular mechanisms occurring in the liver of salmon when challenged with a plant-based diet in order to determine the metabolic processes affected, and the effect of ploidy. Microarray analysis revealed that nutritional history had a major impact on the expression of genes. Key pathways of intermediary metabolism were up-regulated, including oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis and fatty acid metabolism. Other differentially expressed pathways affected by diet included protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, RNA transport, endocytosis and purine metabolism. The interaction between diet and ploidy also had an effect on the hepatic transcriptome of salmon. The biological pathways with the highest number of genes affected by this interaction were related to gene transcription and translation, and cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation, communication and membrane trafficking. The present study revealed that nutritional programming induced changes in a large number of metabolic processes in Atlantic salmon, which may be associated with the improved fish performance and nutrient utilisation demonstrated previously. In addition, differences between diploid and triploid salmon were found, supporting recent data that indicate nutritional requirements of triploid salmon may differ from those of their diploid counterparts.