RNA-Seq data: RNA-IP (TAP-ZC3H30 pull down followed by RNA-Seq) and total transcriptomics (Effect of ZC3H30 gene deletion) in procyclic form of T. brucei
ABSTRACT: The first 4 samples belong to the RNA-IP using in situ TAP tagged ZC3H30 in procyclic (insect) form of the parasite T. brucei Lister 427, 2 samples are Elu or eluate, and 2 are FL or flowthrough (unbound) sample. The other 8 samples are also from procyclic cells. 4 samples belong to DKO(ZC3H30 gene double knockout), 2 are non-stressed and 2 are heat shocked samples; the rest 4 samples are DKO-ectopic (ZC3H30 double knockouts, expressing, ectopic copy of ZC3H30) 2 are non-stressed and 2 are heat shocked samples. Heat Shock experiment was done at 39 degree Celsius.
Project description:Cells naïve to stress can display the effects of stress, such as DNA damage and apoptosis, when they are exposed to signals from stressed cells; this phenomenon is known as the bystander effect. We previously showed that bystander effect induced by ionising radiation are mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). Bystander effect can also be induced by other types of stress, including heat shock, but it is unclear whether EVs are involved. Here we show that EVs released from heat shocked cells are also able to induce bystander damage in unstressed populations. Naïve cells treated with media conditioned by heat shocked cells showed higher levels of DNA damage and apoptosis than cells treated with media from control cells. Treating naïve cells with EVs derived from media conditioned by heat shocked cells also induced a bystander effect when compared to control, with DNA damage and apoptosis increasing whilst the level of cell viability was reduced. We demonstrate that treatment of naïve cells with heat shocked cell-derived EVs leads to greater invasiveness in a trans-well Matrigel assay. Finally, we show that naïve cells treated with EVs from heat-shocked cells are more likely to survive a subsequent heat shock, suggesting that these EVs mediate an adaptive response. We propose that EVs released following stress mediate an intercellular response that leads to apparent stress in neighbouring cells but also greater robustness in the face of a subsequent insult.
Project description:Heat shock induces rapid modification of proteins with SUMO2/3. This study concentrated in charaterizing how these changes are reflected on SUMOylation of chromatin bound proteins, trancsription, and chromatin binding of SUMO ligase PIAS1. Comparison of chromatin SUMO2/3 modification pattern in non-stressed and heat shocked K562 and VCaP cells. All samples were done as biological replicates. In K562 cells, SUMO2/3 ChIP-seq was done in non-stressed (37C) and heat shocked (30min at 43C) cells. The effect of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) to chromatin SUMOylation in HS was studied in HSF1 silenced (shHSF1) K562 cells (non-stressed vs. heat shocked) using scramble shRNA transfected cells as control (shSCR). SUMO2/3, SUMO ligase PIAS1,and RNA polymerase II binding in HS (30 min at 43C) and recovery from HS (1h at 37C after HS) was studied using ChIP-seq. Effect of PIAS1 for chromatin SUMOylation was studied in PIAS1 silenced (siRNA for PIAS1, siPIAS1) cells (non-stressed or heat shocked) using non-targeting siRNA transfected cells as a control (siNON). Effect of SUMOylation to chromatin binding of RNA polymerase II was studied in UBE2I silenced (siRNA for UBE2I) and control (non-targeting siRNA transfected, siNON) VCaP cells (non-stressed or heat shocked). Effect of transtription inhibition for chromatin SUMOylation was studied in TRP (triptolide; 1 micromolar, 3h) and DRB (5,6-Dichlorobenzimidazole 1-beta-D-ribofuranosidase; 100 micromolar, 3h) treated VCaP cells. GRO-seq was used to determine HS-induced changes in nascent transcription in K562 cells.
Project description:Trypanosomes rely on post-transcriptional mechanisms and mRNA-binding proteins for control of gene expression. Trypanosoma brucei ZC3H30 is an mRNA-binding protein that is expressed in both the bloodstream form (which grows in mammals) and the procyclic form (which grows in the tsetse fly midgut). Attachment of ZC3H30 to an mRNA causes degradation of that mRNA. Cells lacking ZC3H30 showed no growth defect under normal culture conditions; but they were more susceptible than wild-type cells to heat shock, starvation, and treatment with DTT, arsenite or ethanol. Transcriptomes of procyclic-form trypanosomes lacking ZC3H30 were indistinguishable from those of cells in which ZC3H30 had been re-expressed, but un-stressed bloodstream forms lacking ZC3H30 had about 2-fold more HSP70 mRNA. Results from pull-downs suggested that ZC3H30 mRNA binding may not be very specific. ZC3H30 was found in stress-induced granules and co-purified with another stress granule protein, Tb927.8.3820; but RNAi targeting Tb927.8.3820 did not affect either ZC3H30 granule association or stress resistance. The conservation of the ZC3H30 gene in both monogenetic and digenetic kinetoplastids, combined with the increased stress susceptibility of cells lacking it, suggests that ZC3H30 confers a selective advantage in the wild, where the parasites are subject to temperature fluctuations and immune attack in both the insect and mammalian hosts.
Project description:The ability to respond to adverse environments effectively along with the ability to reproduce are sine qua non conditions for all sustainable cellular forms of life. Given the availability of an appropriate sensing modality, the ubiquity and immediacy of the stress response could form the basis for a new approach for rapid biological testing. We have found that measuring the dielectric permittivity of a cellular suspension, an easily measurable electronic property, is an effective way to monitor the response of bacterial cells to adverse conditions continuously. The dielectric permittivity of susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, treated with gentamicin and vancomycin, were measured directly using differential impedance sensing methods and expressed as the Normalized Impedance Response (NIR). These same strains were also heat-shocked and chemically stressed with Triton X-100 or H(2)O(2). The NIR profiles obtained for antibiotic-treated susceptible organisms showed a strong and continuous decrease in value. In addition, the intensity of the NIR value decrease for susceptible cells varied in proportion to the amount of antibiotic added. Qualitatively similar profiles were found for the chemically treated and heat-shocked bacteria. In contrast, antibiotic-resistant cells showed no change in the NIR values in the presence of the drug to which it is resistant. The data presented here show that changes in the dielectric permittivity of a cell suspension are directly correlated with the development of a stress response as well as bacterial recovery from stressful conditions. The availability of a practical sensing modality capable of monitoring changes in the dielectric properties of stressed cells could have wide applications in areas ranging from the detection of bacterial infections in clinical specimens to antibiotic susceptibility testing and drug discovery.
Project description:Natural selective processes have been known to drive phenotypic plasticity, which is the emergence of different phenotypes from one genome following environmental stimulation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been observed to modulate transcriptional and epigenetic states of genes in human cells. We surmised that lncRNAs are governors of phenotypic plasticity and drive natural selective processes through epigenetic modulation of gene expression. Using heat shocked human cells as a model we find several differentially expressed transcripts with the top candidates being lncRNAs derived from retro-elements. One particular retro-element derived transcripts, Retro-EIF2S2, was found to be abundantly over-expressed in heat shocked cells. Over-expression of Retro-EIF2S2 significantly enhanced cell viability and modulated a predisposition for an adherent cellular phenotype upon heat shock. Mechanistically, we find that this retro-element derived transcript interacts directly with a network of proteins including 40S ribosomal protein S30 (FAU), Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (EIF5A), and Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40 (UBA52) to affect protein modulated cell adhesion pathways. We find one motif in Retro-EIF2S2 that exhibits binding to FAU and modulates phenotypic cell transitions from adherent to suspension states. The observations presented here suggest that retroviral derived transcripts actively modulate phenotypic plasticity in human cells in response to environmental selective pressures and suggest that natural selection may play out through the action of retro-elements in human cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A yeast strain lacking the two genes SSA1 and SSA2, which encode cytosolic molecular chaperones, acquires thermotolerance as well as the mild heat-shocked wild-type yeast strain. We investigated the genomic response at the level of mRNA expression to the deletion of SSA1/2 in comparison with the mild heat-shocked wild-type using cDNA microarray. RESULTS: Yeast cDNA microarray analysis revealed that genes involved in the stress response, including molecular chaperones, were up-regulated in a similar manner in both the ssa1/2 deletion mutant and the mild heat-shocked wild-type. Genes involved in protein synthesis were up-regulated in the ssa1/2 deletion mutant, but were markedly suppressed in the mild heat-shocked wild-type. The genes involved in ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation were also up-regulated in the ssa1/2 deletion mutant, whereas the unfolded protein response (UPR) genes were highly expressed in the mild heat-shocked wild-type. RT-PCR confirmed that the genes regulating protein synthesis and cytosolic protein degradation were up-regulated in the ssa1/2 deletion mutant. At the translational level, more ubiquitinated proteins and proteasomes were detected in the ssa1/2 deletion mutant, than in the wild-type, confirming that ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation was up-regulated by the deletion of SSA1/2. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the mechanism for rescue of denatured proteins in the ssa1/2 deletion mutant is different from that in the mild heat-shocked wild-type: Activated protein synthesis in the ssa1/2 deletion mutant supplies a deficiency of proteins by their degradation, whereas mild heat-shock induces UPR.
Project description:Uncoupling of NO production from NADPH oxidation by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is enhanced in hyperglycemic endothelium, potentially due to dissociation of heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp90), and cellular glucose homeostasis is enhanced by a ROS-induced positive feed back mechanism. In this study we investigated how such an uncoupling impacts oxygen metabolism and how the oxidative phosphorylation can be preserved by heat shock (42 °C for 2 h, hyperthermia) in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Normal and heat-shocked bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to normoglycemia (NG, 5.0 mM) or hyperglycemia (30 mM). With hyperglycemia treatment, O(2) consumption rate was reduced (from V(O(2)max) = 7.51 ± 0.54 to 2.35 ± 0.27 mm Hg/min/10(6) cells), whereas in heat-shocked cells, O(2) consumption rate remained unaltered (8.19 ± 1.01 mm Hg/min/10 × 10(6) cells). Heat shock was found to enhance Hsp90/endothelial NOS interactions and produce higher NO. Moreover, ROS generation in the hyperglycemic condition was also reduced in heat-shocked cells. Interestingly, glucose uptake was reduced in heat-shocked cells as a result of decrease in Glut-1 protein level. Glucose phosphate dehydrogenase activity that gives rise to NADPH generation was increased by hyperthermia, and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was preserved. In conclusion, the present study provides a novel mechanism wherein the reduced oxidative stress in heat-shocked hyperglycemic cells down-regulates Glut-1 and glucose uptake, and fine-tuning of this pathway may be a potential approach to use for therapeutic benefit of diabetes mellitus.
Project description:The blue light receptor WC-2 was shown to be involved in mushroom development in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. When the gene encoding WC-2 was deleted, no mushrooms formed and colony morphology was radial. This phenotype was similar to the wild-type colony grown in the dark. This phenotype could be complemented by transforming the wc-2 deletion strain with a construct encompassing the wc-2 coding sequence under the control of the heat inducible promoter hsp3. A daily heat shock of 1 hour at 42 degrees Celsius resulted in mushroom development and an asymmetrical colony. In this study we performed a genome-wide expression analysis on dikaryons of wild-type (not heat shocked), delta-wc2 (heat shocked or not heat shocked) and the complemented strain delta-wc2 hsp3-wc2 (heat shocked or not heat shocked). A total of five samples were analyzed. One wild-type (not heat shocked), delta-wc2 (heat shocked or not heat shocked) and the complemented strain delta-wc2 hsp3-wc2 (heat shocked or not heat shocked).
Project description:The blue light receptor WC-2 was shown to be involved in mushroom development in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. When the gene encoding WC-2 was deleted, no mushrooms formed and colony morphology was radial. This phenotype was similar to the wild-type colony grown in the dark. This phenotype could be complemented by transforming the wc-2 deletion strain with a construct encompassing the wc-2 coding sequence under the control of the heat inducible promoter hsp3. A daily heat shock of 1 hour at 42 degrees Celsius resulted in mushroom development and an asymmetrical colony. In this study we performed a genome-wide expression analysis on dikaryons of wild-type (not heat shocked), delta-wc2 (heat shocked or not heat shocked) and the complemented strain delta-wc2 hsp3-wc2 (heat shocked or not heat shocked). Overall design: A total of five samples were analyzed. One wild-type (not heat shocked), delta-wc2 (heat shocked or not heat shocked) and the complemented strain delta-wc2 hsp3-wc2 (heat shocked or not heat shocked).
Project description:African trypanosome procyclic forms multiply in the midgut of tsetse flies, and are routinely cultured at 27°C. Heat shocks of 37°C and above result in general inhibition of translation, and severe heat shock (41°C) results in sequestration of mRNA in granules. The mRNAs that are bound by the zinc-finger protein ZC3H11, including those encoding refolding chaperones, escape heat-induced translation inhibition. At 27°C, ZC3H11 mRNA is predominantly present as an untranslated cytosolic messenger ribonucleoprotein particle, but after heat shocks of 37°C-41°C, the ZC3H11 mRNA moves into the polysomal fraction. To investigate the scope and specificities of heat-shock translational regulation and granule formation, we analysed the distributions of mRNAs on polysomes at 27°C and after 1 hour at 39°C, and the mRNA content of 41°C heat shock granules. We found that mRNAs that bind to ZC3H11 remained in polysomes at 39°C and were protected from sequestration in granules at 41°C. As previously seen for starvation stress granules, the mRNAs that encode ribosomal proteins were excluded from heat-shock granules. 70 mRNAs moved towards the polysomal fraction after the 39°C heat shock, and 260 increased in relative abundance. Surprisingly, many of these mRNAs are also increased when trypanosomes migrate to the tsetse salivary glands. It therefore seems possible that in the wild, temperature changes due to diurnal variations and periodic intake of warm blood might influence the efficiency with which procyclic forms develop into mammalian-infective forms.