Project description:Filamentous fungi are confronted with changes and limitations of their carbon source during growth in their natural habitats and during industrial applications. To survive life-threatening starvation conditions, carbon from extra- and intracellular resources becomes mobilized to fuel fungal self-propagation. Key to understand the underlying cellular processes is the system-wide analysis of fungal starvation responses in a temporal and spatial resolution. The knowledge deduced is important for the development of optimized industrial production processes. This study describes the physiological, morphological and genome-wide transcriptional changes caused by prolonged carbon starvation during submerged batch cultivation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. Bioreactor cultivation supported highly reproducible growth conditions and monitoring of physiological parameters. Changes in hyphal growth and morphology were analyzed at distinct cultivation phases using automated image analysis. The Affymetrix GeneChip platform was used to establish genome-wide transcriptional profiles for three selected time points during prolonged carbon starvation. Compared to the exponential growth transcriptome, about 50% (7,292) of all genes displayed differential genes expression during at least one of the starvation time points. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology, Pfam domain and KEGG pathway annotations uncovered autophagy and asexual reproduction as major global transcriptional trends. Induced transcription of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes was accompanied by increased secretion of hydrolases including chitinases, glucanases, proteases and phospholipases as identified by mass spectrometry. This study is the first system-wide analysis of the carbon starvation response in a filamentous fungus. Morphological, transcriptomic and secretomic analyses identified key events important for fungal survival and their chronology. The dataset obtained forms a comprehensive framework for further elucidation of the interrelation and interplay of the individual cellular events involved. for each post-exponential time point (Day1, Day3 and Day6 post-carbon depletion), biological duplicates were performed.
Project description:To better understand the regulatory mechanisms of water stress response in wheat, the transcript profiles in roots of two wheat genotypes, namely, drought tolerant 'Luohan No.2' (LH) and drought susceptible 'Chinese Spring' (CS) under water-stress were comparatively analyzed by using the Affymetrix wheat GeneChip®. A total of 3831 transcripts displayed 2-fold or more expression changes, 1593 transcripts were induced compared with 2238 transcripts were repressed, in LH under water-stress; Relatively fewer transcripts were drought responsive in CS, 1404 transcripts were induced and 1493 were repressed. Comparatively, 569 transcripts were commonly induced and 424 transcripts commonly repressed in LH and CS under water-stress. 689 transcripts (757 probe sets) identified from LH and 537 transcripts (575 probe sets) from CS were annotated and classified into 10 functional categories, and 74 transcripts derived from 80 probe sets displayed the change ratios no less than 16 in LH or CS. Several kinds of candidate genes were differentially expressed between the LH and CS, which could be responsible for the difference in drought tolerance of the two genotypes. Two common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Luohan No.2 (LH) and Chinese Spring (CS), were used for this study. Seedlings at the two leaf stage were stressed by cultured in PEG solutions for 6h, and some other seedlings were cultured in tap water as control. Root samples of LH and CS at 6h after the stress treatment and untreated control were prepared for microarray analysis.
Project description:We present the first results of a high coverage Dual RNA-Seq experiment of an R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 and L. sativa interaction model with focus on the R. solani transcriptome. With this experiment it is our goal to expand the knowledge regarding the pathosystem L. sativa R. solani AG1-IB through the determination of genes, of pivotal importance for this interaction and who can therefore be seen as putative pathogenicity determinants of R. solani infection within this specific host species.
Project description:The finished human genome-assemblies comprise several hundred un-sequenced euchromatic gaps, which may be rich in long polypurine/polypyrimidine stretches. Human chromosome 20 currently has three remaining un-sequenced gaps on its q-arm. All three gaps are within gene-dense regions, or overlap loci associated with human disorders, including one gap, which is at DLGAP4. In this study we sequenced, determined the complete sizes and assessed epigenetic landscapes of all three un-sequenced gaps on human chromosome 20 using a methodological approach involving Sanger sequencing, mate-pair paired-end high-throughput sequencing and chromatin and methylation analysis. We found histone H3K27me3 to be distributed across all three gaps in immortalized B-lymphocytes. We found five novel CpG islands in one gap to be highly hypermethylated in genomic DNA from both peripheral blood lymphocytes and human cerebellum. One of these CpG islands was differentially methylated and paternally hypermethylated. Furthermore, computational analyses predicted the presence of structured non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in all three chromosome 20 gaps. We verified expression for thirteen candidate ncRNAs, some of which showed tissue-specificity. Four ncRNAs expressed within the gap at DLGAP4 show elevated expression particularly in the human brain. Our data suggests that un-sequenced human genome gaps may comprise functional elements. Mate-pair paired end sequencing using genomic DNA from human translocation carriers having chromosomal rearrangments of chromosomes other than chromosome 20 and chromatin, DNA methylation analysis using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and/or human cerebellum tissue. Analysis done for three remaining human chromosome 20 un-sequenced gap regions.
Project description:Oomycetes from the genus Phytophthora are fungus-like plant pathogens that are devastating for agriculture and natural ecosystems. Due to particular physiological characteristics, no treatments against diseases caused by oomycetes are presently available. To develop such treatments, it appears essential to dissect the molecular mechanisms that determine the interaction between Phytophthora species and host plants. The present project is focused on the molecular mechanisms that underlie the compatible plant-oomycete interaction and plant disease. The laboratory developed a novel interaction system involving the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Phytophthora parasitica, a soil-borne pathogen infecting a wide host range, thus representing the majority of Phytophthora species. A characteristic feature of the compatible Arabidopsis/P. parasitica interaction is an extended biotrophic phase, before infection becomes necrotrophic. Because the initial biotrophic phase is extremely short on natural (e.g. solanaceous) hosts, the Arabidopsis system provides the opportunity to analyze, for both interaction partners, the molecular events that determine the initiation of infection and the switch to necrotrophy. The present project aims at analyzing the compatible interaction between A. thaliana roots and P. parasitica. The Affymetrix A. thaliana full genome chip will be used to characterize modulations of the transcriptome occurring over a period of 24h from the onset of plant root infection to the beginning of necrotrophy. Parallel to this study, a custom-designed P. parasitica biochip will enable analyzing of P. parasitica gene expression during the same stages. 10 samples were used in this experiment.
Project description:We report a new method for genome-wide methylation profiling that is able to probe methylation status in both single-copy DNA and interspersed repeats. This method, MethylMAPS, uses methylation-sensitive and -dependent enzymes to fractionate the genome according to methylation state. Methylated and unmethylated fragments are then sequenced with Next-Gen sequencing to map methylated and unmethylated CpG sites in the genome. We have used this method to determine the methylation status of >275 million CpG sites in human and mouse DNA from breast and brain tissues. We conclude that methylation is the default state of most CpG dinucleotides and that a combination of local dinucleotide frequencies, the interaction of repeated sequences, and the presence or absence of histone variants or modifications shields a population of CpG sites (most of which are in and around promoters) from DNA methyltransferases that lack intrinsic sequence specificity. Genome-wide methylation mapping in two normal human breast tissues, human brain tissue and mouse brain tissue.
Project description:The intent of the experiment was to infer from transcriptome data the differential activation of LTR retrotransposon family members from Onsen/COPIA78, an Arabidopsis thaliana's heat-activated retrotransposon. For this, we performed Illumina 150 bp pair-end RNA-seq, in both wild-type Col-0 and RdDM mutant nrpd1-3 under control and heat stress.
Project description:The intent of the experiment was to infer from DNA sequencing the occurrence of extra-chromosomal DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana's heat-activated LTR retrotransposon Onsen/COPIA78. For this, we performed Illumina 150 bp pair-end PCR-free DNA genome re-sequencing, in both wild-type Col-0 and RdDM mutant nrpd1-3 under control and heat stress.
Project description:Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana. The symbiotic interaction promotes plant per-formance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. We demonstrate that exudated compounds from the fungus activate stress and defense responses in the Arabidopsis roots and shoots before the two partners are in physical contact. They induce stomata closure, stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, stress-related phytohormone accumulation and activate defense and stress genes in the roots and/or shoots. Once a physical contact is established, the stomata re-open, ROS and phytohormone levels decline, and the gene expression pattern indicates a shift from defense to mutualistic interaction. We propose that exudated compounds from P. indica induce stress and defense responses in the host. Root colonization results in the downregulation of defense responses and the activation of genes involved in promoting plant growth, metabolism and performance. Twelve day-old (48 h cold treatment and 10 days of illumination) Arabidopsis seedlings of equal sizes were selected for co-cultivation experiments. They were transferred to PNM plates with a nylone membrane on the top (Johnson et al. 2011) and exposed to a fungal plug 5 mm in diameter or a KM plug of the same size without fungal hyphae (control). The plugs were placed 3 cm away from the closest root part . The light intensity (80 ± 5 μmol m-2 sec-1) was checked every third day to ensure that both P. indica- and mock-treated seedlings receive equal amounts of light.
Project description:Histone acetylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression in plants and eukaryotes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from histones, which is associated with the repression of gene expression. To study the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of gene expression during seed germination, trichostatin A (TSA), a specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase, was used to treat imbibing Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. GeneChip arrays were used to show that TSA induces up-regulation of 45 genes and down-regulation of 27 genes during seed germination. Eight TSA-up-regulated genes were selected for further analysis - RAB18, RD29B, ATEM1, HSP70 and four late embryogenesis abundant protein genes (LEA). A gene expression time course shows that these eight genes are expressed at high levels in the dry seed and repressed upon seed imbibition at an exponential rate. In the presence of TSA, the onset of repression of the eight genes is not affected but the final level of repressed expression is elevated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and HDAC assays show that there is a transient histone deacetylation event during seed germination at one day after imbibition, which serves as a key developmental signal that affects the repression of the eight genes. Experiment Overall Design: Two samples (TSA-treated v.s. untreated). Two replicates for each sample.