Project description:RNA-seq upon TBX2, MYCN or combination of TBX2 and MYCN knockdown in the neuroblastoma cell line IMR-5/75. Cells were transduced with two different shRNAs (shTBX2_2 and shTBX2_4) targeting TBX2 and a non-targeting control (NTC), and selected with puromycin. Cells were treated with doxycycline for shMYCN induction (with DOX or not). Analysis was performed three days upon TBX2 knockdown and two days upon MYCN knockdown, including six biological replicates per condition.
Project description:RNA-seq upon TBX2 knockdown in the neuroblastoma cell line CLB-GA. Cells were transduced with two different shRNAs (sh#2 and sh#4) targeting TBX2 and a non-targeting control (NTC), and selected with puromycin. Analysis was performed seven days upon TBX2 knockdown, including three biological replicates per condition.
Project description:Tbx2 is a member of a large family of transcription factors defined by homology to the T-box DNA-binding domain. Tbx2 plays a key role in embryonic development, and in cancer through its capacity to suppress senescence and promote invasiveness. Despite its importance, little is known of how Tbx2 is regulated or how it achieves target gene specificity. Here we show that Tbx2 specifically associates with active hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (Rb1), a known regulator of many transcription factors involved in cell cycle progression and cellular differentiation, but not with the Rb1-related proteins p107 or p130. The interaction with Rb1 maps to a domain immediately carboxy-terminal to the T-box and enhances Tbx2 DNA binding and transcriptional repression. Microarray analysis of melanoma cells expressing inducible dominant-negative Tbx2, comprising the T-box and either an intact or mutated Rb1 interaction domain, shows that Tbx2 regulates the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle control and that a mutation which disrupts the Rb1-Tbx2 interaction also affects Tbx2 target gene selectivity. Taken together, the data show that Rb1 is an important determinant of Tbx2 functional specificity.
Project description:The TBX2 transcription factor plays critical roles during embryonic development and it is overexpressed in several cancers, where it contributes to key oncogenic processes including the promotion of proliferation and bypass of senescence. Importantly, based on compelling biological evidences, TBX2 has been considered as a potential target for new anticancer therapies. There has therefore been a substantial interest to identify molecules with TBX2-modulatory activity, but no such substance has been found to date. Here, we adopt a targeted approach based on a reverse-affinity procedure to identify the ability of chromomycins A5 (CA5) and A6 (CA6) to interact with TBX2. Briefly, a TBX2-DNA-binding domain recombinant protein was N-terminally linked to a resin, which in turn, was incubated with either CA5 or CA6. After elution, bound material was analyzed by UPLC-MS and CA5 was recovered from TBX2-loaded resins. To confirm and quantify the affinity (KD) between the compounds and TBX2, microscale thermophoresis analysis was performed. CA5 and CA6 modified the thermophoretic behavior of TBX2, with a KD in micromolar range. To begin to understand whether these compounds exerted their anti-cancer activity through binding TBX2, we next analyzed their cytotoxicity in TBX2 expressing breast carcinoma, melanoma and rhabdomyosarcoma cells. The results show that CA5 was consistently more potent than CA6 in all tested cell lines with IC50 values in the nM range. Of the cancer cell types tested, the melanoma cells were most sensitive. The knockdown of TBX2 in 501mel melanoma cells increased their sensitivity to CA5 by up to 5 times. Furthermore, inducible expression of TBX2 in 501mel cells genetically engineered to express TBX2 in the presence of doxycycline, were less sensitive to CA5 than the control cells. Together, the data presented in this study suggest that, in addition to its already recognized DNA-binding properties, CA5 may be binding the transcription factor TBX2, and it can contribute to its cytotoxic activity.
Project description:Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) are the most frequent soft tissue sarcomas in children that share many features of developing skeletal muscle. We have discovered that a T-box family member, TBX2, is highly upregulated in tumor cells of both major RMS subtypes. TBX2 is a repressor that is often overexpressed in cancer cells and is thought to function in bypassing cell growth control, including repression of p14 and p21. The cell cycle regulator p21 is required for the terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle cells and is silenced in RMS cells. We have found that TBX2 interacts with the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and myogenin and inhibits the activity of these factors. TBX2 is expressed in primary myoblasts and C2C12 cells, but is strongly downregulated upon differentiation. TBX2 recruits the histone deacetylase HDAC1 and is a potent inhibitor of the expression of muscle-specific genes and the cell cycle regulators, p21 and p14. TBX2 promotes the proliferation of RMS cells and either depletions of TBX2 or dominant negative TBX2 upregulate p21- and muscle-specific genes. Significantly, depletion or interference with TBX2 completely inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft assay, highlighting the oncogenic role of TBX2 in RMS cells. Thus, the data demonstrate that elevated expression of TBX2 contributes to the pathology of RMS cells by promoting proliferation and repressing differentiation-specific gene expression. These results show that deregulated TBX2 serves as an oncogene in RMS, suggesting that TBX2 may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for RMS tumors.
Project description:8 neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines (CLB-GA, IMR-32, SH-SY5Y, N206, CHP-902R, LAN-2, SK-N-AS, SJNB-1) their methylome is determined by sequencing after MBD2-capture using MethylCollector (ActiveMotif) 8 NB cell lines were included (CLB-GA, IMR-32, SH-SY5Y, N206, CHP-902R, LAN-2, SK-N-AS, SJNB-1) in this study. After shearing (fragments of about 200 bp), DNA was captured using MBD2-capture (MethylCollector - ActiveMotif) followed by library preparation and multiplexing. Captured sequence tags were sequenced paired-end (2 x 45 bp) on Illumina GAIIx.
Project description:TBX2 is a member of the T box transcription factor family. Its expression and potential biological functions in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) cells are studied here. We showed that TBX2 mRNA and protein expression was significantly elevated in multiple human NPC tissues, as compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of TBX2 by targeted-siRNA significantly inhibited proliferation and invasion of NPC cells (CNE-1 and HONE-1 lines). Meanwhile, TBX2 knockdown also induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest. At the molecular level, we discovered that expressions of several tumor suppressor genes, including p21, p27, phosphatase with tensin homology (PTEN) and E-Cadherin, were increased dramatically after TBX2 knockdown in above NPC cells. Collectively, our results imply that TBX2 over-expression promotes NPC cell proliferation and invasion, possibly via silencing several key tumor suppressor genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the embryonic mammalian lung, mesenchymal cells act both as a signaling center for epithelial proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis as well as a source for a multitude of differentiated cell types that support the structure of the developing and mature organ. Whether the embryonic pulmonary mesenchyme is a homogenous precursor pool and how it diversifies into different cell lineages is poorly understood. We have previously shown that the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx2 is expressed in the pulmonary mesenchyme of the developing murine lung and is required therein to maintain branching morphogenesis. METHODS:We determined Tbx2/TBX2 expression in the developing murine lung by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence analyses. We used a genetic lineage tracing approach with a Cre line under the control of endogenous Tbx2 control elements (Tbx2cre), and the R26mTmG reporter line to trace TBX2-positive cells in the murine lung. We determined the fate of the TBX2 lineage by co-immunofluorescence analysis of the GFP reporter and differentiation markers in normal murine lungs and in lungs lacking or overexpressing TBX2 in the pulmonary mesenchyme. RESULTS:We show that TBX2 is strongly expressed in mesenchymal progenitors in the developing murine lung. In differentiated smooth muscle cells and in fibroblasts, expression of TBX2 is still widespread but strongly reduced. In mesothelial and endothelial cells expression is more variable and scattered. All fetal smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts derive from TBX2+ progenitors, whereas half of the mesothelial cells have a different descent. The fate of TBX2-expressing cells is not changed in Tbx2-deficient and in TBX2-constitutively overexpressing mice but the distribution and abundance of endothelial and smooth muscle cells is changed in the overexpression condition. CONCLUSION:The fate of pulmonary mesenchymal progenitors is largely independent of TBX2. Nevertheless, a successive and precisely timed downregulation of TBX2 is necessary to allow proper differentiation and functionality of bronchial smooth muscle cells and to limit endothelial differentiation. Our work suggests expression of TBX2 in an early pulmonary mesenchymal progenitor and supports a role of TBX2 in maintaining the precursor state of these cells.
Project description:The paired box homeotic gene 3 (PAX3) is a crucial regulator for the maintenance of melanocytic progenitor cells and has a poorly defined role in melanoma. To understand how PAX3 affects melanocyte and melanoma proliferation, we identified potential PAX3 downstream targets through gene expression profiling. Here, we identify T-box 2 (TBX2), a key developmental regulator of cell identity and an antisenescence factor in melanoma, as a directly regulated PAX3 target. We also found that TBX2 is involved in the survival of melanoma cells and is overexpressed in some melanoma specimens. The identification of TBX2 as a target for PAX3 provides a key insight into how PAX3 may contribute to melanoma evolution and may provide opportunities for prosenescence therapeutic intervention aimed at disrupting the ability of PAX3 to regulate TBX2.
Project description:The TBX2 subfamily (TBXs 2, 3, 4 and 5) transactivates or represses genes involved in lung organogenesis. Yet TBX2 subfamily expression in pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common lung malignancy, remains elusive. We sought to probe the expression profile of the TBX2 subfamily in early phases of NSCLC. Expression of TBX2 subfamily was analyzed in datasets of pan-normal specimens as well as NSCLCs and normal lung tissues. TBX2 subfamily expression in matched normal lungs, premalignant hyperplasias and NSCLCs was profiled by transcriptome sequencing. TBX2 subfamily expression was evaluated in the cancerization field consisting of matched NSCLCs and adjacent cytologically-normal airways relative to distant normal lungs and in a dataset of normal bronchial samples from smokers with indeterminate nodules suspicious for malignancy. Statistical analysis was performed using R. TBX2 subfamily expression was markedly elevated in normal lungs relative to other organ-specific normal tissues. Expression of the TBXs was significantly suppressed in NSCLCs relative to normal lungs (P < 10-9). TBX2 subfamily was significantly progressively decreased across premalignant lesions and NSCLCs relative to normal lungs (P < 10-4). The subfamily was significantly suppressed in NSCLCs and adjacent normal-appearing airways relative to distant normal lung tissues (P < 10-15). Further, suppressed TBX2 subfamily expression in normal bronchi was associated with lung cancer status (P < 10-5) in smokers. Our findings suggest that the TBX2 subfamily is notably suppressed in human NSCLC pathogenesis and may serve as a high-potential biomarker for early lung cancer detection in high-risk smokers.