Differential Regulation of Th17 and Th1 Cells in mouse by Glutaminase-Dependent Metabolism and Chromatin Remodeling
ABSTRACT: Activated T cells differentiate into functional subsets which require distinct metabolic programs. Glutaminase (GLS) converts glutamine to glutamate to provide substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and epigenetic reactions and here we identify a key role for GLS in T cell activation and specification. Though GLS-deficiency diminished T cell activation, proliferation and impaired differentiation of Th17 cells, loss of GLS also increased Tbet and Interferon-γ expression and CD4 Th1 and CD8 CTL effector cell differentiation. These changes were mediated by differentially altered gene expression and chromatin accessibility, leading to increased sensitivity of Th1 cells to IL-2 mediated mTORC1 signaling. In vivo, GLS-null T cells failed to drive a Th17 mediated Graft-vs-Host Disease model. Transient inhibition of GLS, however, increased Th1 and CTL T cell numbers in viral and chimeric antigen receptor models. Glutamine metabolism thus has distinct roles to promote Th17 but constrain Th1 and CTL effector cell differentiation.
Project description:Activated T cells differentiate into functional subsets with distinct metabolic programs. Glutaminase (GLS) converts glutamine to glutamate to support the tricarboxylic acid cycle and redox and epigenetic reactions. Here, we identify a key role for GLS in T cell activation and specification. Though GLS deficiency diminished initial T cell activation and proliferation and impaired differentiation of Th17 cells, loss of GLS also increased Tbet to promote differentiation and effector function of CD4 Th1 and CD8 CTL cells. This was associated with altered chromatin accessibility and gene expression, including decreased PIK3IP1 in Th1 cells that sensitized to IL-2-mediated mTORC1 signaling. In vivo, GLS null T cells failed to drive Th17-inflammatory diseases, and Th1 cells had initially elevated function but exhausted over time. Transient GLS inhibition, however, led to increased Th1 and CTL T cell numbers. Glutamine metabolism thus has distinct roles to promote Th17 but constrain Th1 and CTL effector cell differentiation.
Project description:In this study, we examined differential gene expression in naïve human CD4+ T cells, as well as in effector Th1, Th17-negative and Th17-enriched CD4- T cell subsets. We observed a marked enrichment for increased gene expression in effector CD4+ T cells compared to naive CD4+ among immune-mediated disease oci genes. Within effector T cells, expression of disease-associated genes was increased in Th17-enriched compared to Th17-negative cells. We used microarray to examine the gene expresssion profile and level of human naïve, Th1 and effector T cell subsets. Human PBMCs were isolated and sorted to naïve, CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells. Naïve T cells were differentiatied to Th1 cells, and CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells were in vitro expanded for Th17-negative and Th17-enriched effector T cells. The gene profile was compared among naive, Th1, Th17-negative, and Th17-enriched cell subsets.
Project description:Protein kinase C ? (PKC?) is involved in signaling downstream of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and is important for shaping effector T cell functions and inflammatory disease development. Acquisition of Th1-like effector features by Th17 cells has been linked to increased pathogenic potential. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Th17/Th1 phenotypic instability remain largely unknown. In the current study, we address the role of PKC? in differentiation and function of Th17 cells by using genetic knock-out mice. Implementing in vitro (polarizing T cell cultures) and in vivo (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, EAE) techniques, we demonstrated that PKC?-deficient CD4+ T cells show normal Th17 marker gene expression (interleukin 17A/F, ROR?t), accompanied by enhanced production of the Th1-typical markers such as interferon gamma (IFN-?) and transcription factor T-bet. Mechanistically, this phenotype was linked to aberrantly elevated Stat4 mRNA levels in PKC?-/- CD4+ T cells during the priming phase of Th17 differentiation. In contrast, transcription of the Stat4 gene was suppressed in Th17-primed wild-type cells. This change in cellular effector phenotype was reflected in vivo by prolonged neurological impairment of PKC?-deficient mice during the course of EAE. Taken together, our data provide genetic evidence that PKC? is critical for stabilizing Th17 cell phenotype by selective suppression of the STAT4/IFN-?/T-bet axis at the onset of differentiation.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) has recently been recognized to regulate adaptive immunity through Th17 differentiation, Treg functions, and TFH responses. However, its role in adaptive immunity and autoimmune disease is still not clear, possibly due to sexual differences. Here, we investigated in vitro treatment study with the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone to compare Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in male and female mouse splenic T cells. Pioglitazone treatment significantly inhibited various effector T cell differentiations including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells from female naïve T cells, but it selectively reduced IL-17 production in male Th17 differentiation. Interestingly, pioglitazone and estradiol (E2) co-treatment of T cells in males inhibited differentiation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, suggesting a mechanism for the greater sensitivity of PPAR? to ligand treatment in the regulation of effector T cell differentiation in females. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPAR? selectively inhibits Th17 differentiation only in male T cells and modulates Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in female T cells based on different level of estrogen exposure. Accordingly, PPAR? could be an important immune regulator of sexual differences in adaptive immunity.
Project description:In this study, we examined differential gene expression in naïve human CD4+ T cells, as well as in effector Th1, Th17-negative and Th17-enriched CD4- T cell subsets. We observed a marked enrichment for increased gene expression in effector CD4+ T cells compared to naive CD4+ among immune-mediated disease oci genes. Within effector T cells, expression of disease-associated genes was increased in Th17-enriched compared to Th17-negative cells. We used microarray to examine the gene expresssion profile and level of human naïve, Th1 and effector T cell subsets. Overall design: Human PBMCs were isolated and sorted to naïve, CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells. Naïve T cells were differentiatied to Th1 cells, and CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells were in vitro expanded for Th17-negative and Th17-enriched effector T cells. The gene profile was compared among naive, Th1, Th17-negative, and Th17-enriched cell subsets.
Project description:Glutaminolysis is a well-known source of energy for effector T cells but its contribution to each T cell subset and the mechanisms which are responsible for the control of involved metabolic enzymes are not fully understood. We report that Th17 but not Th1, Th2, or Treg cell induction in vitro depends on glutaminolysis and the up-regulation of glutaminase 1 (Gls1), the first enzyme in the glutaminolysis pathway. Both pharmacological and siRNA-based selective inhibition of Gls1 reduced in vitro Th17 differentiation and reduced the CD3/TCR-mediated increase of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity. Treatment of mice with a Gls1 inhibitor ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Furthermore, RAG1-deficient mice that received Gls1-shRNA-transfected 2D2 T cells had reduced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis scores compared with those that received control-shRNA-treated cells. Next we found that T cells deficient in inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), a transcriptional factor known to promote Th17 differentiation, display reduced activity of oxidative phosphorylation rates in the presence of glutamine and reduced Gls1 expression, both of which could be restored by ICER overexpression. Finally, we demonstrate that ICER binds to the gls1 promoter directly and increases its activity. These findings demonstrate the importance of glutaminolysis in the generation of Th17 and the direct control of Gls1 activity by the IL-17-promoting transcription factor ICER. Pharmaceutical modulation of the glutaminolysis pathway should be considered to control Th17-mediated pathology.
Project description:Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) where pathology is thought to be regulated by autoreactive T cells of the Th1 and Th17 phenotype. In this study we sought to understand the functions of Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) in regulating T cell effector responses in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) murine model of MS. PSEN1 is the catalytic subunit of ?-secretase a multimolecular protease that mediates intramembranous proteolysis. ?-secretase is known to regulate several pathways of immune importance. Here we examine the effects of disrupting PSEN1 functions on EAE and T effector differentiation using small molecule inhibitors of ?-secretase (GSI) and T cell-specific conditional knockout mice (PSEN1 cKO). Surprisingly, blocking PSEN1 function by GSI treatment or PSEN1 cKO had little effect on the development or course of MOG35-55-induced EAE. In vivo GSI administration reduced the number of myelin antigen-specific T cells and suppressed Th1 and Th17 differentiation following immunization. In vitro, GSI treatment inhibited Th1 differentiation in neutral but not IL-12 polarizing conditions. Th17 differentiation was also suppressed by the presence of GSI in all conditions and GSI-treated Th17 T cells failed to induce EAE following adoptive transfer. PSEN cKO T cells showed reduced Th1 and Th17 differentiation. We conclude that ?-secretase and PSEN1-dependent signals are involved in T effector responses in vivo and potently regulate T effector differentiation in vitro, however, they are dispensable for EAE.
Project description:Memory helper T (Th) cells are crucial for secondary immune responses against infectious microorganisms but also drive the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to understand how memory T cells are generated. However, the molecular mechanisms governing memory Th cell generation remain incompletely understood. Here, we identified CD30 as a molecule heterogeneously expressed on effector Th1 and Th17 cells, and CD30hi effector Th1 and Th17 cells preferentially generated memory Th1 and Th17 cells. We found that CD30 mediated signal induced Transglutaminase-2 (TG2) expression, and that the TG2 expression in effector Th cells is essential for memory Th cell generation. In fact, Cd30-deficiency resulted in the impaired generation of memory Th1 and Th17 cells, which can be rescued by overexpression of TG2. Furthermore, transglutaminase-2 (Tgm2)-deficient CD4 T cells failed to become memory Th cells. As a result, T cells from Tgm2-deficient mice displayed impaired antigen-specific antibody production and attenuated Th17-mediated allergic responses. Our data indicate that CD30-induced TG2 expression in effector Th cells is essential for the generation of memory Th1 and Th17 cells, and that CD30 can be a marker for precursors of memory Th1 and Th17 cells.
Project description:Activation of CD4+ T cells results in rapid proliferation and differentiation into effector and regulatory subsets. CD4+ effector T cell (Teff) (Th1 and Th17) and Treg subsets are metabolically distinct, yet the specific metabolic differences that modify T cell populations are uncertain. Here, we evaluated CD4+ T cell populations in murine models and determined that inflammatory Teffs maintain high expression of glycolytic genes and rely on high glycolytic rates, while Tregs are oxidative and require mitochondrial electron transport to proliferate, differentiate, and survive. Metabolic profiling revealed that pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a key bifurcation point between T cell glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. PDH function is inhibited by PDH kinases (PDHKs). PDHK1 was expressed in Th17 cells, but not Th1 cells, and at low levels in Tregs, and inhibition or knockdown of PDHK1 selectively suppressed Th17 cells and increased Tregs. This alteration in the CD4+ T cell populations was mediated in part through ROS, as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment restored Th17 cell generation. Moreover, inhibition of PDHK1 modulated immunity and protected animals against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, decreasing Th17 cells and increasing Tregs. Together, these data show that CD4+ subsets utilize and require distinct metabolic programs that can be targeted to control specific T cell populations in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel regulator 2A (CRACR2A) is expressed abundantly in T cells and acts as a signal transmitter between TCR stimulation and activation of the Ca2+/NFAT and JNK/AP1 pathways. CRACR2A has been linked to human diseases in numerous genome-wide association studies and was shown to be one of the most sensitive targets of the widely used statin drugs. However, the physiological role of CRACR2A in T cell functions remains unknown. In this study, using transgenic mice for tissue-specific deletion, we show that CRACR2A promotes Th1 responses and effector function of Th17 cells. CRACR2A was abundantly expressed in Th1 and Th17 cells. In vitro, deficiency of CRACR2A decreased Th1 differentiation under nonpolarizing conditions, whereas the presence of polarizing cytokines compensated this defect. Transcript analysis showed that weakened TCR signaling by deficiency of CRACR2A failed to promote Th1 transcriptional program. In vivo, conditional deletion of CRACR2A in T cells alleviated Th1 responses to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection and imparted resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Analysis of CNS from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced mice showed impaired effector functions of both Th1 and Th17 cell types, which correlated with decreased pathogenicity. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the requirement of CRACR2A-mediated TCR signaling in Th1 responses as well as pathogenic conversion of Th17 cells, which occurs at the site of inflammation.