Project description:Organismal ageing is associated with loss of immune function and higher incidence of cancer. Whether the γδ T cell pool changes upon organismal ageing is not known. In this study we have characterized γδ T cells in peripheral lymph nodes from old and young mice. We found that the γδ T cell pool is severely altered in old mice. The IL-17 producing γδ lineage becomes dominating while IFN-γ producing γδ1 T cells are declining. γδTCR sequencing revealed no collapse in diversity but oligoclonal expansions in Vγ4 γδ17 subsets. Pro-tumourigenic invariant Vγ6 cells are present only in aged lymph nodes, represent the majority of γδ T cells in the tumour, and are associated with faster tumour progression.
Project description:To explore the primary cause of Dilated Cardiomyopathy in heart samples from DCM-diagnosed patients who had undergone heart transplant (hDCM), we set out to identify differentially expressed genes by massively parallel sequencing of heart samples. Methods: Heart mRNA profiles from DCM-diagnosed patients who had undergone heart transplant (hDCM) were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina GAIIx.
Project description:A maize array was fabricated with 5,376 unique expressed sequence tag (EST) clones sequenced from 4-day-old roots, immature ears and adult organ cDNA libraries. To elucidate organ relationships, relative mRNA levels were quantified by hybridization with embryos, three maize vegetative organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and roots) from multiple developmental stages, husk leaves and two types of floral organs (immature ears and silks). Clustering analyses of the hybridization data suggest that maize utilizes both the PEPCK and NADP-ME C(4) photosynthetic routes as genes in these pathways are co-regulated. Husk RNA has a gene-expression profile more similar to floral organs than to vegetative leaves. Only 7% of the genes were highly organ specific, showing over a fourfold difference in at least one of 12 comparisons and 37% showed a two- to fourfold difference. The majority of genes were expressed in diverse organs with little difference in transcript levels. Cross-hybridization among closely related genes within multigene families could obscure tissue specificity. As a first step in elucidating individual gene-expression patterns, we show that 45-nucleotide oligo probes produce signal intensities and signal ratios comparable to PCR probes on the same matrix. Gene-expression profile studies with cDNA microarrays provide a new molecular tool for defining plant organs and their relationships and for discovering new biological processes in silico. cDNA microarrays are insufficient for differentiating recently duplicated genes. Gene-specific oligo probes printed along with cDNA probes can query individual gene-expression profiles and gene families simultaneously.
Project description:To understand the genetic mechanisms involved in the functional transition of cotyledons from non-photosynthetic storage tissue to metabolically active photosynthetic tissue during soybean seedling development, we constructed seven different RNA-Seq libraries using cotyledons from each developmental stage separately. Analysis of RNA-Seq data from different developmental stages revealed the differential expression of many genes including transcription factors. In this study, we focused on NAC and YABBY transcription factors which showed a conspicuous expression pattern during soybean seedling development. Their expression gradually increases from stage 1 to stage 4 of soybean germinating cotyledons. The highest level of expression was found at stage 4. Then it gradually decreased as the germinating cotyledons develop a mature seedling. We investigated the differential expression of NAC and YABBY regulated genes between stage 3 (before the functional transition) and stage 6 (after the functional transition) using our RNA-Seq data. Based on our RNA-Seq data, we found that 10 genes are up-regulated and 21 genes are down-regulated by NAC transcription factor. Similarly we found that 19 genes are up-regulated and 27 genes are down-regulated by YABBY transcription factor. High-throughput sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 2000 (RNA-Seq) was performed on seven developmental stages of soybean seedlings, with two biological replicates per stage.