Osteoporosis is a devastating disease with an essential genetic component. GWAS have discovered genetic signals robustly associated with bone mineral density (BMD), but not the precise localization of effector genes. Here, we carry out physical and direct variant to gene mapping in human mesenchymal progenitor cell-derived osteoblasts employing a massively parallel, high resolution Capture C based method in order to simultaneously characterize the genome-wide interactions of all human promoters. ...[more]
Project description:Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have been successful in yielding >60 loci for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). However, it is known that GWAS just reports genomic signals and not necessarily the precise localization of culprit genes, with eQTL efforts only able to infer causality to a minority of such loci. Thus, we sought to carry out physical and direct ‘variant to gene mapping’ by integrating results from high-throughput chromatin conformation capture and ATAC-seq assays. This experiment refers to the ATAC-seq part of our work. To determine informative proxy SNPs for each of the SLE GWAS sentinel loci, we generated ATAC-seq open chromatin maps for primary human T Follicular Helper (TFH) cells from tonsils of healthy volunteers (3 biological replicates), a model relevant to SLE as TFH operate upstream of the activation of pathogenic autoantibody-producing B cells during the disease. We also generated open chromatin maps for naive CD4-positive helper T cells (3 biological replicates).
Project description:Activated T cells differentiate into functional subsets which require distinct metabolic programs. Glutaminase (GLS) converts glutamine to glutamate to provide substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and epigenetic reactions and here we identify a key role for GLS in T cell activation and specification. Though GLS-deficiency diminished T cell activation, proliferation and impaired differentiation of Th17 cells, loss of GLS also increased Tbet and Interferon-γ expression and CD4 Th1 and CD8 CTL effector cell differentiation. These changes were mediated by differentially altered gene expression and chromatin accessibility, leading to increased sensitivity of Th1 cells to IL-2 mediated mTORC1 signaling. In vivo, GLS-null T cells failed to drive a Th17 mediated Graft-vs-Host Disease model. Transient inhibition of GLS, however, increased Th1 and CTL T cell numbers in viral and chimeric antigen receptor models. Glutamine metabolism thus has distinct roles to promote Th17 but constrain Th1 and CTL effector cell differentiation.
Project description:Much has been learned about transcriptional cascades and networks from large-scale systems analyses of high-throughput data sets. However, analysis methods that optimize statistical power through simultaneous evaluation of thousands of ChIP-seq peaks or differentially expressed genes possess substantial limitations in their ability to uncover mechanistic principles of transcriptional control. By examining nascent transcript RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, and binding motif data sets from lipid A-stimulated macrophages with increased attention to the quantitative distribution of signals, we identified unexpected relationships between the in vivo binding properties of inducible transcription factors, motif strength, and transcription. Furthermore, rather than emphasizing common features of large clusters of co-regulated genes, our results highlight the extent to which unique mechanisms regulate individual genes with key biological functions. Our findings demonstrate the mechanistic value of stringent interrogation of well-defined sets of genes as a complement to broader systems analyses of transcriptional cascades and networks. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were stimulated with lipid A for 0 or 120 minutes. Chromatin was treated with Tn5 transposase to measure DNA accessibility
Project description:The assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) is widely used to identify regulatory regions throughout the genome. However, only a few studies have been done at the single cell level (scATAC-seq) due to technical difficulties. Here we developed a simple and robust plate-based scATAC-seq method, combining upfront bulk tagmentation with single-nuclei sorting, to investigate open chromatin regions. We applied this method on mouse splenocytes and unbiasedly revealed key regulatory regions and transcription factors that define each cell (sub)type.
Project description:Stable zebrafish cell lines were created that expressed GFP under the control of a previously characterized mouse Smarcd3 enhancer (10.7554/eLife.03848). Specifically, the 2.7 kb Mouse Smarcd3-F6 sequence (chr5: 24113559 -24116342 from mm9 assembly) was sub-cloned from a gateway entry vector into the Zebrafish Enhancer Detection (ZED). Tol2-mediated transgenesis was performed and stable lines were created. The Smarcd3-F6:EGFPhsc70 allele was used for all genomics experiments. Smarcd3-F6:EGFPhsc70 embryos were dissociated at 10 hours post fertilization for fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). 30,000-50,000 GFP positive and negative cells were collected from FACS for ATAC-seq. ATAC-seq libraries were created with Tn5 transposase and single-end sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform
Project description:The human iPSC line H19101 was differentiated in vitro into cardiomyocytes using a 20-day differentiation protocol (Burridge et al. 2014 PMID 24930130 and Montefiori et al 2018 PMID 29988018 ). 50,000 cardiomyocytes were used in each ATAC-seq experiment. 8 replicates were pooled to obtain the final peak file.
Project description:B lymphopoiesis requires that immunoglobulin genes be accessible to RAG1-RAG2 recombinase. However, the RAG proteins bind widely to open chromatin, which suggests that additional mechanisms must restrict RAG-mediated DNA cleavage. Here we show that developmental downregulation of interleukin 7 (IL-7)-receptor signaling in small pre-B cells induced expression of the bromodomain-family member BRWD1, which was recruited to a specific epigenetic landscape at Igk dictated by pre–BCR-dependent Erk activation. BRWD1 enhanced RAG recruitment, increased gene accessibility and positioned nucleosomes 5′ to each Jκ recombination signal sequence. BRWD1 thus targets recombination to Igk and places recombination within the context of signaling cascades that control B cell development. Our findings represent a paradigm in which,at any particular antigen-receptor locus, specialized mechanisms enforce lineage- and stage-specific recombination. ChIP-seq for 1 transcription factor and 2 histone modifications in flow purified mouse small pre-B cells. ATAC-seq and RNA-seq in WT and Brwd-Mut mouse flow purified small pre-B cells.