MiRseq Analysis of Human Macrophages Co-cultured with MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells
ABSTRACT: Tumor-immune cell interactions shape the immune cell phenotype, with microRNAs (miRs) being crucial components of this crosstalk. How they are transferred, and how they affect their target landscape, especially in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), is largely unknown. Here we aimed to define miRome of TAMs and identify novel miRs those are deferentially expression in TAMs and decipher their functional relevance in disease settings.
Project description:Macrophage activation is associated with profound transcriptional reprogramming. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of macrophage activation, polarization and function, the transcriptional programs regulating these processes remain poorly characterized. We stimulated human macrophages with diverse activation signals, acquiring a dataset of 299 macrophage transcriptomes. Analysis of this dataset revealed a spectrum of macrophage activation states extending the current M1 versus M2-polarization model. Network analyses identified central transcriptional regulators associated with all macrophage activation complemented by regulators related to stimulus-specific programs. Applying these transcriptional programs to human alveolar macrophages from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) revealed an unexpected loss of inflammatory signatures in COPD patients. Finally, by integrating murine data from the ImmGen project we propose a refined, activation-independent core signature for human and murine macrophages. This resource serves as a framework for future research into regulation of macrophage activation in health and disease. Since transcriptional programs are further modulated on several levels including miRNAs we assessed the global spectrum of miRNA expression by miRNA-Seq in macrophages stimulated with IFNγ, IL4 or with the combination of TNFα, PGE2 and P3C
Project description:Macrophages have been implicated in breast cancer progression and metastasis, but relatively little is known about the genes and pathways that are involved. Using a conditional allele of Ets2 in the mouse, we have identified Ets2 as a critical gene in tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) that specifically promotes mammary tumor metastasis. Loss of Ets2 in TAMs decreased the frequency and size of lung metastases without impacting primary tumor burden. Expression profiling of isolated tumor macrophages established that Ets2 deficiency resulted in the de-repression of a defined set of anti-angiogenic genes. Activation of this transcriptional program correlated with decreased angiogenesis in metastatic tumors and decreased metastatic growth. Comparison of this Ets2-specific TAM expression profile with human breast cancer profiles revealed a macrophage gene expression signature that could predict overall survival of estrogen receptor negative patients. In summary, we have identified a critical factor, Ets2, in TAMs that represses a transcriptional program to promote the growth of mammary tumor metastases in the lung. Breast TAMs were isolated from early-stage PyMT-induced mammary tumors expressing Ets2 and also from the tumors with Ets2-deficient TAMs. Since macrophages have also been implicated in normal mammary gland remodeling, normal remeodeling macrophages were also purified from females expressing Ets2 and the ones where Ets2 is deleted in the macrophages. One RNA sample was extracted from each genetic group for gene-expression profiling.
Project description:One of the greatest obstacles to eliminating TB is the lack of predictive and diagnostic biomarkers. Exosomes are a promising alternative source of biomarkers for TB since they can carry mycobacterial antigens. We hypothesize that exosomes from Mtb-infected macrophages exhibit a characteristic selection of human protein that can be evaluated as TB biomarkers. We looked for the localization—exosomal membrane or lumen—of the differentially abundant proteins. Exosomes were obtained from THP-1-derived macrophages (Mtb infected and uninfected controls). The exosome population was validated by nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot. The protein composition of exosomes was evaluated by tandem mass spectrometry. Differences in protein composition and abundances between exosomes from infected and control cells were evaluated by t-test the proteomics findings were confirmed by western blot. Using a biotinylation strategy we verified the protein localization. Forty-seven proteins were significantly more abundant in exosomes from Mtb-infected cells, 66% were predicted to be membrane associated. The biotinylation pattern confirmed the membrane-association of some of these proteins.
Project description:Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and is up-regulated in tumors that originate from a diversity of lineages. DcR3 is capable of promoting angiogenesis, inducing dendritic cell apoptosis, and modulating macrophage differentiation. Since tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major infiltrating leukocytes in most malignant tumors, we used microarray technology to investigate whether DcR3 contributes to the development of TAMs. Among the DcR3-modulated genes expressed by TAMs, those that encode proteins involved in MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation were down-regulated substantially, together with the master regulator of MHC-II expression (the class II transactivator, CIITA). The ERK- and JNK-induced deacetylation of histones associated with the CIITA promoters was responsible for DcR3-mediated down-regulation of MHC-II expression. Furthermore, the expression level of DcR3 in cancer cells correlated inversely with HLA-DR levels on TAMs and with the overall survival time of pancreatic cancer patients. The role of DcR3 in the development of TAMs was further confirmed using transgenic mice over-expressing DcR3. This elucidates the molecular mechanism of impaired MHC-II-mediated antigen presentation by TAMs, and raises the possibility that subversion of TAM-induced immunosuppression via inhibition of DcR3 expression might represent a target for the design of new therapeutics. Experiment Overall Design: Freshly isolated human monocytes were cultured with DcR3 or control hIgG1 in the presence of M-CSF for 2 days. Data were collected from two independent donors
Project description:microRNA profiling data includes biological replicates of primary monocytes and macrophages from three human donors Dye swap hybridization arrays were performed for total RNA isolated from fresh monocytes and 7-day monocyte-derived macrophages from each of three human donors
Project description:The authors previously suggested that CD204 was a useful marker for tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, they discovered that within ESCC microenvironment not only cancer cells but also TAMs expressed cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer, 61 (Cyr61), induced by conditioned media of ESCC cells. Levels of Cyr61 expression were associated with CD204+ macrophage infiltration in ESCC tissue. Cyr61 promoted CD204 expression and migration of macrophages via MEK/Erk pathway in vitro. To identify the molecules specifically upregulated in TAM-like THP-1 cells, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis using RNAs from THP-1 stimulated with 200 nM TPA or with 200 nM TPA followed by 50% TE-8CM. THP-1 human acute monocytic leukemia cell line was treated with 200 nM 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 2 days to induce macrophage-like differentiation, then exposed to 50%Conditioned medium of TE-8 ESCC cell line (TE-8CM) for 2 days. Differentially expressed genes between MΦ-like and TAM-like THP-1 cells were analysed by cDNA microarray. TE-8CM was prepared by plating 5 × 106 tumor cells in 10 mL complete medium in 100-mm dishes for 24 hr, thereafter changing the medium to complete DMEM supplemented with 10% human AB serum instead of fetal bovine serum. After 2–3 days, the supernatants were harvested, centrifuged and stored in aliquots at −80°C.
Project description:the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages were studied by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI), and from healthy controls. From each individual in the three cohorts: the healthy (n=3), the latent (n=4), and the active TB patients (n=3), whole blood specimens were collected for monocytes isolation. Monocytes were induced into macrophage in vitro and total RNA were extracted for miRNA profiles analysis.
Project description:Active immunotherapy is a promising strategy for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy. Recently, we have reported that a vaccine using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced specific anti-endothelial immune responses in the most of immunized patients, and resulted in tumor regression in some patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors, whereas not in colorectal cancer patients. In this study, we hypothesized that non-hypoxic perivascular tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in colorectal cancer, but not in glioblastoma, might negatively alter the therapeutic efficacy of anti-angiogenic active immunotherapy. To test this hypothesis, we examined global gene expression profiles of non-hypoxic macrophages stimulated in vitro by soluble factors released from tumor cells of human glioblastoma U-87MG (‘brain TAMs’) or colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 (‘colon TAMs’). Murine non-hypoxic TAMs were induced in vitro by incubation with soluble factors released from human cancer cell lines U-87MG ('brain TAMs') or HT-29 ('colon TAMs'), for RNA extraction and subsequent hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. To evaluate homogeneous macrophage populations at different tumour developmental stages, RNA aliquots of control macrophages and TAMs obtained at five different time-points, i.e. 8h, 16h, 24h, 32h and 40h, were pooled and used for screening of differentially expressed genes. The experiments for TAMs as well as for control unstimulated macrophages were performed in triplicates.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have immunosuppressive capacity in mouse models of cancer. Here we show that the genetic deletion of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme DICER in TAMs broadly programs them to a CD11c+MRC1−/low M1-like immunostimulatory phenotype characterized by activated interferon-γ (IFN-γ)/STAT1/IRF signaling. M1-like TAM programming fostered the recruitment of cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs), including tumor-antigen-specific CTLs, inhibited tumor growth, and enhanced the efficacy of PD1 checkpoint blockade. Bioinformatics analysis of TAM transcriptomes identified a limited set of miRNAs putatively involved in TAM programming. Re-expression of Let-7 in Dicer-deficient TAMs was sufficient to partly rescue the M2-like (protumoral) TAM phenotype and abate tumor CTL infiltration. Targeted suppression of DICER activity in TAMs may, therefore, stimulate antitumor immunity and enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. To explore the role of DICER in the development, activation and immunological functions of TAMs, we crossed homozygous LysM-Cre (Clausen et al., 1999) with Dicerlox/lox (Harfe et al., 2005) mice to obtain mice with myeloid-cell-specific Dicer1 gene deletion (LysM-Cre;Dicer–/–, referred to as D–/–). These mice were then backcrossed to LysM-Cre to obtain the control LysM-Cre; Dicer+/+ mice (referred to as D+/+). Both LysM-Cre and Dicerlox/lox mutations were always homozygous in our experiment. We then inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells subcutaneously (s.c.) in D–/– and control D+/+ mice. Once the tumors were established, we isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) tumor-associated macrophages (F4/80+ cells).