Project description:MDA-MB231 cells were transfected with control vector, RAI2-overexpression vector, or vector with RAI2-4A, which has a mutated interaction domain w.r.t. CtBP/CtBP2 Three replicates each of control condition, RAI2 overexpression or RAI2-4A overexpression.
Project description:Nuclear genome exchange between different oocytes results in efficient development and stem cell derivation 1 million cells was used for RNA extraction and labeling using the Illumina total prep RNA amplification kit. Parthenogenetic stem cell lines and embryonic stem cells
Project description:The stem cell lines were generated according to the principle described in Noggle et al., Nature 2011, Oct 5;478(7367):70-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10397. Title: Human oocytes reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Abstract: The exchange of the oocyte's genome with the genome of a somatic cell, followed by the derivation of pluripotent stem cells, could enable the generation of specific cells affected in degenerative human diseases. Such cells, carrying the patient's genome, might be useful for cell replacement. Here we report that the development of human oocytes after genome exchange arrests at late cleavage stages in association with transcriptional abnormalities. In contrast, if the oocyte genome is not removed and the somatic cell genome is merely added, the resultant triploid cells develop to the blastocyst stage. Stem cell lines derived from these blastocysts differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers, and a pluripotent gene expression program is established on the genome derived from the somatic cell. This result demonstrates the feasibility of reprogramming human cells using oocytes and identifies removal of the oocyte genome as the primary cause of developmental failure after genome exchange. The major difference to Noggle et al. are that these new stem cell lines are tetraploid rather than diploid. The main technical difference is the addition of cytochalasinB during artificial activation, preventing extrusion of the second polar body, thereby resulting in the retention of a diploid oocyte genome, rather than a haploid one. Adult somatic cells were transferred into non-enucleated oocytes and then activated in the presence of cytochalasinB. Addition of cytochalasinB inhibits extrusion of the second polar body, resulting in tetraploid eggs. The efficiency of development to the blastoycst stage is described in: Yamada et al., 2014, Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells, Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):533-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13287. Blastocysts developing from these were used for the derivation or pluripotent stem cell lines. Gene expression analysis was performed to demonstrate transcriptional reprogramming. These cell lines contain both somatic and oocyte genomes.
Project description:The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Though reprogramming of somatic cells by nuclear transfer was first demonstrated more than 60 years ago, only recently have human diploid embryonic stem cells been derived after nuclear transfer of fetal and neonatal fibroblasts. Because of the therapeutic potential of developing diploid embryonic stem cell lines from adult cells of normal and diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency and developmental potential in their derivation. We found that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both a kinase and a translation inhibitor, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors enable development of diploid cells to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied significantly between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required to reach mature oocytes, while the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of MII oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. The use of diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium during nuclear transfer improved developmental potential, while the use of concentrated Sendai virus induced an increase in intracellular calcium and caused premature oocyte activation. Using these modifications to the nuclear transfer protocol, we successfully derived diploid pluripotent stem cell lines from both postnatal and adult somatic cells of a type 1 diabetic subject. The goal of this experiment was to determine if human oocytes have the ability to reprogram a somatic cell genome in the absence of the oocyte genome. Our previous research had indicated that human oocytes can reprogram adult somatic cells if the oocyte genome remains present (Noggle et al. Nature 2011, doi:10.1038/nature10397). The data presented here is part of a new series of experiments aimed at obtaining diploid cells after somatic cell nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes. In this experiment, adult somatic cells were transferred into enucleated oocytes and thereafter cultured in the presence of 240ng/ml scriptaid for 17 hours. Samples were cultured until cleavage stage and then collected for microarray analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND - IL-6 mediates graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in experimental allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) and is an attractive therapeutic target. METHODS - A registered phase I/II study (ACTRN12612000726853) of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) neutralizing antibody administration on day -1 to patients receiving full or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and alloSCT from HLA-matched sibling or unrelated donors with standard cyclosporin and methotrexate GVHD prophylaxis. The primary endpoint was incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD. Outcomes were compared to a non-randomized but contemporaneous group of study patients receiving the same alloSCT in the absence of IL-6R mAb. FINDINGS - Cytokine and pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed transient IL-6 dysregulation in the first month after alloSCT with complete inhibition following IL-6R mAb administration. With median follow up of 497 days, the incidence of grade II-IV GVHD was 12.5% in recipients of IL-6R inhibition (n = 48) versus 41.5% in the (n = 53) control cohort (P = 0.001). Low rates of acute GVHD were noted in patients receiving IL-6R inhibition relative to control patients following both myeloablative (12.5% vs. 46.4%, P = 0.03) and RIC (12.5% vs. 36.0%, P = 0.04). The incidence of severe (grade III/IV) acute GVHD was 4.2% in recipients of IL-6R inhibition versus 20.8% in the control cohort (P = 0.012). Relapse and chronic GVHD were unchanged. Immune reconstitution was preserved in recipients of IL-6R inhibition, but qualitatively modified with suppression of known pathogenic STAT3-dependent pathways. INTERPRETATION - IL-6 is the principal detectable and dysregulated cytokine secreted after alloSCT and its inhibition is a potential new and simple strategy to protect from acute GVHD despite robust immune reconstitution and a sustained graft-versus-leukemia effect. Single colour, Illumina Human HT12v4 Beadarrays.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents a heterogeneous diagnostic category with distinct molecular subtypes that can be deﬁned by gene expression proﬁling. However, even within these deﬁned subtypes, heterogeneity prevails. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of these entities, we determined the expression of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in 248 primary DLBCL patient samples. These analyses revealed that loss of PTEN was detectable in 55% of germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCLs, whereas this abnormality was found in only 14% of non-GCB DLBCL patient samples. In GCB DLBCL, the PTEN status was inversely correlated with activation of the oncogenic PI3K/ protein kinase B (AKT) pathway in both DLBCL cell lines and primary patient samples. Reexpression of PTEN induced cytotox- icity in PTEN-deﬁcient GCB DLBCL cell line models by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling, indicating an addiction to this pathway in this subset of GCB DLBCLs. PI3K/AKT inhibition induced down-regulation of the transcription factor MYC. Reexpression of MYC rescued GCB DLBCL cells from PTEN-induced toxicity, identifying a regulatory mechanism of MYC expression in DLBCL. Finally, pharmacologic PI3K inhibition resulted in toxicity selectively in PTEN-deﬁcient GCB DLBCL lines. Collectively, our results indicate that PTEN loss deﬁnes a PI3K/ AKT-dependent GCB DLBCL subtype that is addicted to PI3K and MYC signaling and suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K might represent a promising therapeutic approach in these lymphomas. This GEO dataset is comprised of a) GEP measurements for 34 primary DLBCL patient samples plus two reference samples, b) 8 paired GEP measurements of the HT DLBCL cell line and c) aCGH measurements for two DLBCL cell lines in addition to previously published cell lines in GSE43272 (i.e., Sample GSM1059798). All of these data were used in the paper cited below.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE37403: Genome-wide analysis of the SNAPc complex [ChIP-Seq] GSE41528: Genome-wide analysis of the SNAPc complex [Illumina array] Refer to individual Series
Project description:The small nuclear RNA (snRNA)-activating protein complex (SNAPc) is a basal transcription factor that mediates the transcriptional activation of snRNAs. Here, we describe the genome-wide occupancy of the SNAPC1_and SNAPC4 subunits of SNAPc. While the SNAPC4 occupancy was in accord with the role for SNAPc in snRNA transcription, SNAPC1_displayed a broader genomic profile mirroring that of RNA polymerase II at highly active protein-coding genes. Our functional analysis revealed a role for SNAPC1_in regulation of both basal and activator-induced transcription of protein-coding genes. These studies expand the role for SNAPC1_beyond its regulation of snRNA transcription. EGF stimulation of Hela cells, transfected with a control sh (scr) or a SNAPC1_sh
Project description:Breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and PALB2 have enigmatic roles in cellular growth and mammalian development. While these genes are essential for growth during early developmental programs, inactivation later in adulthood leads to increased growth and formation of tumors, leading to their designation as tumor suppressors. We performed genome-wide analysis assessing their chromatin residence and gene expression responsiveness using high throughput sequencing in breast epithelial cells. These experiments revealed a critical role for BRCA1 and PALB2 in transcriptional responsiveness to NF-kB, a crucial mediator of growth and inflammatory response during development and cancer. Importantly, we also uncovered a vital role for these proteins in response to retinoic acid (RA), a growth inhibitory signal in breast cancer cells, which may constitute the basis for their tumor suppressor activity. MCF-7 cells were infected with PALB2, BRCA1, p65/RelA and non targeting (SCR) shRNAs. After puromycin selection, cells were stimulated with 10ng/ml TNF-alpha 1 hour