Transcription profiling of mouse lung upon exposure to BAG6KO or wild type exosomes derived from BV16 cells
ABSTRACT: Mice were intravenously injected with extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from B16V wt (n=3) or BAG6KO (n=3) cells or with PBS (n=3) as a control for 4 weeks on a weekly basis. Since B-16V melanoma cells colonise the lung upon intravenous injection and referring to current literature, we hypothesise that melanoma EVs alter the (immune-) microenvironment of the lung to prepare a pre-metastatic niche. Based on current literature and own previous experiments identifying BAG6 as an immunoregulatory protein that is also involved in the biogenesis of EVs, we are particularly interested in differences between the immune signature upon wt EV treatment compared to BAG6KO EV treatment.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed nanoparticles containing specific repertoires of genetic material. In mammals, EVs can mediate the horizontal transfer of various cargos and signaling molecules, notably miRNA and mRNA species. Whether this form of intercellular communication prevails in other metazoans remains unclear. Here, we report the first parallel comparative morphologic and transcriptomic characterization of EVs from Drosophila and human cellular models. Electronic microscopy revealed that Drosophila, like human cells release exosome-like EVs with diameter ranging from 30 to 200 nm, which contain complex populations of transcripts. RNA-seq identified abundant ribosomal RNA pseudogenes and retrotransposons in human and Drosophila EVs. Vault RNAs and Y RNAs abounded in human samples, whereas small nucleolar RNAs involved in pseudouridylation were most prevalent in Drosophila EVs. Numerous mRNAs were identified, largely consisting of exonic sequences displaying full-length read coverage and enriched for translation and electronic transport chain functions. By analogy with human systems, these extensive similarities suggest that EVs could also enable RNA-mediated intercellular communication in Drosophila. We performed RNA-seq on extracellular vesicles purified from of human and Drosophila cell line cultures. S2R+ and D17 Drosophila EVs were analyzed, along with human A431 and HepG2 EVs. No ribosomal RNA depletion or polyA selection was performed on EV samples. For comparative analyses, we also analyzed total cellular RNA from Drosophila D17 and human HepG2. Ribodepletion was performed on cellular samples.
Project description:Osteolineage cells represent one of the critical bone marrow niche components that support maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Recent studies demonstrate that extracellular vesicles (EVs) regulate stem cell development via horizontal transfer of bioactive cargo, including microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we characterize the miRNA profile of EVs secreted by human osteoblasts and study their biological effect of on human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ HSPCs by sequencing, gene expression and biochemical analyses. Using next-generation sequencing we show that osteoblast-derived EVs contain highly abundant miRNAs specifically enriched in EVs, including critical regulators of hematopoietic proliferation (e.g., miR-29a). EV treatment of CD34+ HSPCs alters the expression of candidate miRNA targets, such as HBP1, BCL2 and PTEN. Furthermore, EVs enhance proliferation of CD34+ cells and their immature subsets in growth factor-driven ex vivo expansion cultures. Importantly, EV-expanded cells retain their differentiation capacity in vitro and show successful engraftment in NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) mice in vivo. These discoveries reveal a novel osteoblast-derived EV-mediated mechanism for regulation of HSPC proliferation and warrant consideration of EV-miRNAs for the development of expansion strategies to treat hematological disorders.
Project description:Phenotypic changes induced by extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated in the recovery of acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). miRNAs are potential candidates for cell reprogramming towards a pro-regenerative phenotype. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether miRNA de-regulation inhibits the regenerative potential of MSCs and derived-EVs in a model of glycerol-induced AKI in SCID mice. For this purpose, we generated MSCs depleted of Drosha, a critical enzyme of miRNA maturation, to alter miRNA expression within MSCs and EVs. Drosha knock-down MSCs (MSC-Dsh) maintained the phenotype and differentiation capacity. They produced EVs that did not differ from those of wild type cells in quantity, surface molecule expression and internalization within renal tubular epithelial cells. However, EVs derived from MSC-Dsh (EV-Dsh) showed global down-regulation of miRNAs. Whereas, wild type MSCs and derived EVs were able to induce morphological and functional recovery in AKI, MSC-Dsh and EV-Dsh were ineffective. RNA sequencing analysis showed that genes deregulated in the kidney of AKI mice were restored by treatment with MSCs and EVs but not by MSC-Dsh and EV-Dsh. Gene Ontology analysis showed that down-regulated genes in AKI were associated with fatty acid metabolism. The up-regulated genes in AKI were involved in inflammation, ECM-receptor interaction and cell adhesion molecules. These alterations were reverted by treatment with wild type MSCs and EVs, but not by the Drosha counterparts. In conclusion, miRNA depletion in MSCs and EVs significantly reduced their intrinsic regenerative potential in AKI, suggesting a critical role of miRNAs. RNA-seq
Project description:Background: Exosomes and extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly recognized as important sources of biomarkers for disease study and diagnosis. Results: A synthetic peptide, Vn96, allows for capture of EVs from biological fluids using basic laboratory equipment. Conclusion: The Vn96-captured EVs are qualitatively equivalent or superior to exosomes isolated by ultracentrifugation. Significance: The Vn96 peptide provides an effective affinity-capture method for the isolation of EVs from biological fluids. In order to compare different methods of exosome purification, we compared RNA content of exosomes purified with each method. We used two different breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. We processed data in order to identify large RNAs as well as small RNA by using different methods for the alignment
Project description:As it is likely that different stimuli promote the release of distinct EV populations, we analyzed EVs from human lymphocytes considering the respective release stimuli (activation vs. apoptosis induction). Morphology and size were analyzed by electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. The protein content of these vesicles was analyzed by bidimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spec and western blot.
Project description:The present studies tested the hypothesis that the elongating ovine conceptus and uterus produces EVs with the potential to mediate conceptus-maternal communication during early pregnancy. In Study One, EVs were purified from uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of day 14 cyclic sheep. The EVs were fluorescently labeled with PKH67 dye and infused into the uterine lumen of pregnant sheep for 6 days using an osmotic pump. On day 14, labeled EVs were observed in the conceptus trophectoderm and uterine epithelia, but not in the uterine stroma or myometrium. In Study Two, day 14 conceptuses were cultured ex vivo for 24 hours and found to release EVs into the culture medium. Isolated EVs from conceptuses were fluorescently labeled with PKH67 and infused into the uterine lumen of cyclic sheep for 6 days using an osmotic pump. On day 14, labeled EVs were observed in the uterine epithelia, but not in the uterine stroma or myometrium. No evidence of EV escape from the uterine lumen was observed by analysis of the ovary and other maternal tissues. Proteomics analysis of the day 14 conceptus-derived EVs identified 231 proteins that were enriched for extracellular space and several protein classes including proteases, protease inhibitors, chaperones and chaperonins. RNA-sequencing of day 14 conceptus-derived EVs detected expression of 512 mRNAs. The top expressed genes were overrepresented in ribosomal functions and components. These studies support the ideas that EVs emanate from both the conceptus trophectoderm and uterine epithelia and are involved in intercellular communication during the establishment of pregnancy. Transcriptional profiles from day 14 conceptus extracellular vesicles isolated from 24 hour conceptus-conditioned culture media (n=3) were generated by sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform.
Project description:Extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) function as vehicles of intercellular communication in autocrine or paracrine manner. We report that cancer-derived EV biomaterials reach nuclei of human melanoma and breast carcinoma cells and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) through Rab7+ late endosome subdomains that penetrate into nuclear envelope invaginations. MSCs were exposed to cancer Evs in the presence or absence of drugs that block nucler import or export through the nuclear pores. Depletion of CD9 or inhibition of importin β1, two EV-associated molecules, abrogated the nuclear localization of EV-derived biomaterials and EV-induced early changes in MSC transcriptome notably in genes involved in inflammation. Also inhibition of nuclear export by leptomycin B inhibited early changes in MSC transcriptome. This novel cellular pathway may become a cancer therapeutic target. Overall design: mRNA-Seq Human mesenchymal stromal cells alone or exposed to cancer Evs in the presence or absence of uptake modulators
Project description:The goal of this study is to identify unique miRNA profiles of EVs from MCF7 and MCF10A cells that distinguish their cellular origin. 654 human mature miRNAs were analyzed in NanoString assays to identify miRNA with high abundance in MCF7 EVs and the greatest fold change for MCF7 EVs relative to MCF10A EVs.
Project description:Under physiological conditions, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present simultaneously in the extracellular compartment together with cytokines. Thus, we hypothesized that EVs in combination with cytokines induce different responses of monocyte cells compared to EVs or cytokines alone. Human monocyte U937 cells were incubated with EV-containing or EV-free CCRF human T-cell supernatant, with or without the addition of TNF. U937 cells cultured in EV-free supernatant, supernatant containing CCRF t-cell derived EVs, TNF or both. Each treatment option was measured in 3 replicates.