ABSTRACT: RNA-Seq analysis of mouse cardiac transcriptome. Transverse aortic contraction was used to induce cardiac hypertrophy (TAC). To compare wild type and physiological cardiac hypertrophy 'Sendetary' (feeding mouse during 4 weeks) and 'Swim (exercise training to induce the cardiac hypertrophy) samples were analysed.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are dynamic regulators of cellular signaling. GRK5 is highly expressed within myocardium and is upregulated in heart failure. Although GRK5 is a critical regulator of cardiac G protein-coupled receptor signaling, recent data has uncovered noncanonical activity of GRK5 within nuclei that plays a key role in pathological hypertrophy. Targeted cardiac elevation of GRK5 in mice leads to exaggerated hypertrophy and early heart failure after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) because of GRK5 nuclear accumulation.In this study, we investigated the role of GRK5 in physiological, swimming-induced hypertrophy (SIH).Cardiac-specific GRK5 transgenic mice and nontransgenic littermate control mice were subjected to a 21-day high-intensity swim protocol (or no swim sham controls). SIH and specific molecular and genetic indices of physiological hypertrophy were assessed, including nuclear localization of GRK5, and compared with TAC. Unlike after TAC, swim-trained transgenic GRK5 and nontransgenic littermate control mice exhibited similar increases in cardiac growth. Mechanistically, SIH did not lead to GRK5 nuclear accumulation, which was confirmed in vitro as insulin-like growth factor-1, a known mediator of physiological hypertrophy, was unable to induce GRK5 nuclear translocation in myocytes. We found specific patterns of altered gene expression between TAC and SIH with GRK5 overexpression. Further, SIH in post-TAC transgenic GRK5 mice was able to preserve cardiac function.These data suggest that although nuclear-localized GRK5 is a pathological mediator after stress, this noncanonical nuclear activity of GRK5 is not induced during physiological hypertrophy.
Project description:How Ca2+-dependent signaling effectors are regulated in cardiomyocytes, given the extreme cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration changes that underlie contraction, remains unknown. Cardiomyocyte plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) extrudes Ca2+ but has little effect on excitation-contraction coupling, suggesting its potential role in controlling Ca2+-dependent signaling effectors such as calcineurin. We generated cardiac-specific inducible PMCA4b transgenic mice that displayed normal global Ca2+ transient and cellular contraction levels and reduced cardiac hypertrophy following transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or phenylephrine/Ang II infusion, but showed no reduction in exercise-induced hypertrophy. Transgenic mice were protected from decompensation and fibrosis following long-term TAC. The PMCA4b transgene reduced the hypertrophic augmentation associated with transient receptor potential canonical 3 channel overexpression, but not that associated with activated calcineurin. Furthermore, Pmca4 gene-targeted mice showed increased cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure events after TAC. Physical associations between PMCA4b and calcineurin were enhanced by TAC and by agonist stimulation of cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. PMCA4b reduced calcineurin nuclear factor of activated T cell-luciferase activity after TAC and in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes after agonist stimulation. PMCA4b overexpression inhibited cultured cardiomyocyte hypertrophy following agonist stimulation, but much less so in a Ca2+ pumping-deficient PMCA4b mutant. Thus, Pmca4b likely reduces the local Ca2+ signals involved in reactive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via calcineurin regulation.
Project description:The current study was designed to explore the role and underlying mechanism of lncRNA taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) in cardiac hypertrophy. Mice were treated by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to induce cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiomyocytes were treated by phenylephrine (PE) to induce hypertrophic phenotype. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and immunofluorescence (IF) were used to examine morphological alterations. Real-time PCR, Western blots and IF staining were used to detect the expression of RNAs and proteins. Luciferase assay and RNA pull-down assay were used to verify the interaction. It is revealed that TUG1 was up-regulated in the hearts of mice treated by TAC surgery and in PE-induced cardiomyocytes. Functionally, overexpression of TUG1 alleviated cardiac hypertrophy both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanically, TUG1 sponged and sequestered miR-34a to increase the Dickkopf 1 (DKK1) level, which eventually inhibited the activation of Wnt/?-catenin signalling. In conclusion, the current study reported the protective role and regulatory mechanism of TUG1 in cardiac hypertrophy and suggested that TUG1 may serve as a novel molecular target for treating cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:RATIONALE:The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy remains controversial. OBJECTIVE:To conclusively determine whether IL-6 signaling is essential for the development of pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS:Wild-type and IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice underwent sham surgery or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure overload. Serial echocardiograms and terminal hemodynamic studies revealed attenuated LV hypertrophy and superior preservation of LV function in IL-6(-/-) mice after TAC. The extents of LV remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis were reduced in IL-6(-/-) hearts after TAC. Transcriptional and protein assays of myocardial tissue identified Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation as important underlying mechanisms during cardiac hypertrophy induced by TAC. The involvement of these pathways in myocyte hypertrophy was verified in isolated cardiac myocytes from wild-type and IL-6(-/-) mice exposed to prohypertrophy agents. Furthermore, overexpression of CaMKII in H9c2 cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation, and exposure of H9c2 cells to IL-6 resulted in STAT3 activation that was attenuated by CaMKII inhibition. Together, these results identify the importance of CaMKII-dependent activation of STAT3 during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via IL-6 signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Genetic deletion of IL-6 attenuates TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, indicating a critical role played by IL-6 in the pathogenesis of LV hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. CaMKII plays an important role in IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and consequent cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. These findings may have significant therapeutic implications for LV hypertrophy and failure in patients with hypertension.
Project description:Pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with significantly increased risk of heart failure, one of the leading medical causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are known to be involved in pathological cardiac remodeling. However, whether miR-99a participates in the signaling cascade leading to cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. To evaluate the role of miR-99a in cardiac hypertrophy, we assessed the expression of miR-99a in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by isoprenaline (ISO)/angiotensin-II (Ang II) and in mice model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Expression of miR-99a was evaluated in these hypertrophic cells and hearts. We also found that miR-99a expression was highly correlated with cardiac function of mice with heart failure (8 weeks after TAC surgery). Overexpression of miR-99a attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in TAC mice and cellular hypertrophy in stimuli treated cardiomyocytes through down-regulation of expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicate that miR-99a negatively regulates physiological hypertrophy through mTOR signaling pathway, which may provide a new therapeutic approach for pressure-overload heart failure.
Project description:MicroRNA-24 (miR-24) plays an important role in heart failure by reducing the efficiency of myocardial excitation-contraction coupling. Prolonged cardiac hypertrophy may lead to heart failure, but little is known about the role of miR-24 in cardiac hypertrophy. This study aimed to preliminarily investigate the function of miR-24 and its mechanisms in cardiac hypertrophy.Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats with a body weight of 50 ± 5 g were recruited and randomly divided into two groups: a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) group and a sham surgery group. Hypertrophy index was measured and calculated by echocardiography and hematoxylin and eosin staining. TargetScans algorithm-based prediction was used to search for the targets of miR-24, which was subsequently confirmed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction and luciferase assay. Immunofluorescence labeling was used to measure the cell surface area, and 3H-leucine incorporation was used to detect the synthesis of total protein in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) with the overexpression of miR-24. In addition, flow cytometry was performed to observe the alteration in the cell cycle. Statistical analysis was carried out with GraphPad Prism v5.0 and SPSS 19.0. A two-sided P < 0.05 was considered as the threshold for significance.The expression of miR-24 was abnormally increased in TAC rat cardiac tissue (t = -2.938, P < 0.05). TargetScans algorithm-based prediction demonstrated that CDKN1B (p27, Kip1), a cell cycle regulator, was a putative target of miR-24, and was confirmed by luciferase assay. The expression of p27 was decreased in TAC rat cardiac tissue (t = 2.896, P < 0.05). The overexpression of miR-24 in NRCMs led to the decreased expression of p27 (t = 4.400, P < 0.01), and decreased G0/G1 arrest in cell cycle and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.MiR-24 promotes cardiac hypertrophy partly by affecting the cell cycle through down-regulation of p27 expression.
Project description:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Liver kinase B1 interacting protein 1 (LKB1IP) was identified as the binding protein of tumour suppressor LKB1. However, the role of LKB1IP in the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of LKB1IP in cardiac hypertrophy in response to hypertrophic stimuli. We investigated the cardiac level of LKB1IP in samples from patients with heart failure and mice with cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol (ISO) or transverse aortic constriction (TAC). LKB1IP knockout mice were generated and challenged with ISO injection or TAC surgery. Cardiac function, hypertrophy and fibrosis were then examined. LKB1IP expression was significantly up-regulated on hypertrophic stimuli in both human and mouse cardiac samples. LKB1IP knockout markedly protected mouse hearts against ISO- or TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. LKB1IP overexpression aggravated ISO-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and its inhibition attenuated hypertrophy in vitro. Mechanistically, LKB1IP activated Akt signalling by directly targeting PTEN and then inhibiting its phosphatase activity. In conclusion, LKB1IP may be a potential target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:Maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy predisposes one to arrhythmia and sudden death. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) promote anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms, and are involved in the regulation of cardiac Ca(2+)-, K(+)- and Na(+)-channels. To test the hypothesis that enhanced cardiac EET biosynthesis counteracts hypertrophy-induced electrical remodeling, male transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the human epoxygenase CYP2J2 (CYP2J2-TG) and wildtype littermates (WT) were subjected to chronic pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction, TAC) or ?-adrenergic stimulation (isoproterenol infusion, ISO). TAC caused progressive mortality that was higher in WT (42% over 8 weeks after TAC), compared to CYP2J2-TG mice (6%). In vivo electrophysiological studies, 4 weeks after TAC, revealed high ventricular tachyarrhythmia inducibility in WT (47% of the stimulation protocols), but not in CYP2J2-TG mice (0%). CYP2J2 overexpression also enhanced ventricular refractoriness and protected against TAC-induced QRS prolongation and delocalization of left ventricular connexin-43. ISO for 14 days induced high vulnerability for atrial fibrillation in WT mice (54%) that was reduced in CYP-TG mice (17%). CYP2J2 overexpression also protected against ISO-induced reduction of atrial refractoriness and development of atrial fibrosis. In contrast to these profound effects on electrical remodeling, CYP2J2 overexpression only moderately reduced TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and did not affect the hypertrophic response to ?-adrenergic stimulation. These results demonstrate that enhanced cardiac EET biosynthesis protects against electrical remodeling, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, and atrial fibrillation susceptibility during maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as a novel group of non-coding RNAs able to regulate gene expression. While their role in cardiac disease is only starting to be understood, their involvement in cardiac hypertrophy is poorly known. We studied the association between lncRNAs and left ventricular hypertrophy using whole transcriptome microarrays. Wild-type mice and mice overexpressing the adenosine A2A receptor were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce left ventricular hypertrophy. Expression profiles of lncRNAs in the heart were characterized using genome-wide microarrays. An analytical pipeline was specifically developed to extract lncRNA data from microarrays. We identified 2 lncRNAs up-regulated and 3 lncRNAs down-regulated in the hearts of A2A-receptor overexpressing-mice subjected to TAC compared to wild-type mice. Differential expression of these 2 lncRNAs was validated by quantitative PCR. Complete microarray dataset is available at Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) under the accession number GSE45423. Here, we describe in details the experimental design, microarray performance and analysis.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by maladaptive cardiac remodeling is the uppermost risk factor for the development of heart failure. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have various biological functions, and their vital role in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy still needs to be explored. In this study, we demonstrated that lncRNA Plscr4 was upregulated in hypertrophic mice hearts and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated cardiomyocytes. Next, we observed that overexpression of Plscr4 attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Conversely, the inhibition of Plscr4 gave rise to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Furthermore, overexpression of Plscr4 attenuated TAC (transverse aortic constriction)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Finally, we demonstrated that Plscr4 acted as an endogenous sponge of miR-214 and forced expression of Plscr4 downregulated miR-214 expression to promote Mfn2 and attenuate hypertrophy. In contrast, knockdown of Plscr4 upregulated miR-214 to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Additionally, luciferase assay showed that miR-214 was the direct target of Plscr4, and overexpression of miR-214 counteracted the anti-hypertrophy effect of Plscr4. Collectively, these findings identify Plscr4 as a negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro due to its regulation of the miR-214-Mfn2 axis, suggesting that Plscr4 might act as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.