Illumina Microarray of human CD4+ T cells sorted into naive, central-memory, effector-memory, and transitioning cell populations
ABSTRACT: 3 healthy donor PBMC samples were isolated from EDTA blood. Then CD4+ T cells were magnetically isolated, stained for CD3, 4, 8, 56, 62L, 197, and then naive (CD45RA+62L+CCR7+), transitioning (CD45RAmedCD45ROmed), as well as CM (CD45RO+CD62L+CCR7+) and EM (CD45RO+CD62L-CCR7-) cells were FACS-sorted. mRNA was isolated from these cells using Zymo RNA kits and subjected to an Affymetrix microarray.
Project description:Cultured IFN-γ ELISPOT assays are primarily a measure of central memory T cell (Tcm) responses with humans; however, this important subset of lymphocytes is poorly characterized in cattle. Vaccine-elicited cultured IFN-γ ELISPOT responses correlate with protection against bovine tuberculosis in cattle. However, whether this assay measures cattle Tcm responses or not is uncertain. The objective of the present study was to characterize the relative contribution of Tcm (CCR7+, CD62Lhi, CD45RO+), T effector memory (Tem, defined as: CCR7-, CD62Llow/int, CD45RO+), and T effector cells (CCR7-, CD62L-/low, CD45RO-), in the immune response to Mycobacterium bovis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from infected cattle were stimulated with a cocktail of M. bovis purified protein derivative, rTb10.4 and rAg85A for 13 days with periodic addition of fresh media and rIL-2. On day 13, cultured PBMC were re-stimulated with medium alone, rESAT-6:CFP10 or PPDb with fresh autologous adherent cells for antigen presentation. Cultured cells (13 days) or fresh PBMCs (ex vivo response) from the same calves were analyzed for IFN-γ production, proliferation, and CD4, CD45RO, CD62L, CD44, and CCR7 expression via flow cytometry after overnight stimulation. In response to mycobacterial antigens, ~75% of CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells in long-term cultures expressed a Tcm phenotype while less than 10% of the ex vivo response consisted of Tcm cells. Upon re-exposure to antigen, long-term cultured cells were highly proliferative, a distinctive characteristic of Tcm, and the predominant phenotype within the long-term cultures switched from Tcm to Tem. These findings suggest that proliferative responses of Tcm cells to some extent occurs simultaneously with reversion to effector phenotypes (mostly Tem). The present study characterizes Tcm cells of cattle and their participation in the response to M. bovis infection.
Project description:In clinical trials of adoptive T-cell therapy, the persistence of transferred cells correlates with therapeutic efficacy. However, properties of human T cells that enable their persistence in vivo are poorly understood, and model systems that enable investigation of the fate of human effector T cells (T(E)) have not been described. Here, we analyzed the engraftment of adoptively transferred human cytomegalovirus pp65-specific CD8(+) T(E) cells derived from purified CD45RO(+)CD62L(+) central memory (T(CM)) or CD45RO(+)CD62L(-) effector memory (T(EM)) precursors in an immunodeficient mouse model. The engraftment of T(CM)-derived effector cells (T(CM/E)) was dependent on human interleukin-15, and superior in magnitude and duration to T(EM)-derived effector cells (T(EM/E)). T-cell receptor V? analysis of persisting cells demonstrated that CD8(+) T(CM/E) engraftment was polyclonal, suggesting that the ability to engraft is a general feature of T(CM/E.) CD8(+) T(EM/E) proliferated extensively after transfer but underwent rapid apoptosis. In contrast, T(CM/E) were less prone to apoptosis and established a persistent reservoir of functional T cells in vivo characterized by higher CD28 expression. These studies predict that human CD8(+) effector T cells derived from T(CM) precursors may be preferred for adoptive therapy based on superior engraftment fitness.
Project description:The present study evaluates the immune response of memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from patients following a natural Vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. A total of 42 individuals were involved in the study being: 22 previously infected individuals (vaccinated or not against smallpox) and 20 non-infected individuals (vaccinated or not). A short-term in vitro stimulation with UV-inactivated VACV of whole blood cells was performed. Our study showed that previously infected individuals have a lower percentage of CD4(+) T cells expressing lymph-node homing receptors (CD4(+)CD62L(+)CCR7(+)) and higher percentage of memory CD4(+) T cells subsets (CD4(+)CD45RO(High)) when compared with non-infected subjects, after in vitro viral stimulation. We also showed that infected individuals presented higher percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T lymphocytes expressing IFN-? when compared to non-infected individuals. We verified that the percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T memory cells expressing TNF-? was higher in infected and non-infected vaccinated subjects when compared with non-infected unvaccinated individual. We also observed that previously infected individuals have higher percentages of CD8(+) T cells expressing lymph-node homing receptors (CCR7(+) and CD62L(+)) and that the memory T cells expressing IFN-? and TNF-? were at higher percentages in the whole blood cells from infected and non-infected vaccinated individuals, when compared to unvaccinated non-infected subjects. Thus, our findings suggest that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are involved in the immune memory response against Vaccinia virus natural infection.
Project description:Immunological memory is thought to depend on a stem cell-like, self-renewing population of lymphocytes capable of differentiating into effector cells in response to antigen re-exposure. Here we describe a long-lived human memory T cell population that has an enhanced capacity for self-renewal and a multipotent ability to derive central memory, effector memory and effector T cells. These cells, specific to multiple viral and self-tumor antigens, were found within a CD45RO(-), CCR7(+), CD45RA(+), CD62L(+), CD27(+), CD28(+) and IL-7R?(+) T cell compartment characteristic of naive T cells. However, they expressed large amounts of CD95, IL-2R?, CXCR3, and LFA-1, and showed numerous functional attributes distinctive of memory cells. Compared with known memory populations, these lymphocytes had increased proliferative capacity and more efficiently reconstituted immunodeficient hosts, and they mediated superior antitumor responses in a humanized mouse model. The identification of a human stem cell-like memory T cell population is of direct relevance to the design of vaccines and T cell therapies.
Project description:Influenza vaccines elicit antigen-specific antibodies and immune memory to protect humans from infection with drift variants. However, what supports or limits vaccine efficacy and duration is unclear. Here, we vaccinated healthy volunteers with annual vaccine formulations and investigated the dynamics of T cell, natural killer (NK) cell and antibody responses upon restimulation with heterologous or homologous influenza virus strains. Influenza vaccines induced potential memory NK cells with increased antigen-specific recall IFN-γ responses during the first 6 months. In the absence of significant changes in other NK cell markers (CD45RO, NKp44, CXCR6, CD57, NKG2C, CCR7, CD62L and CD27), influenza vaccines induced memory NK cells with the distinct feature of intracellular NKp46 expression. Indeed, surface NKp46 was internalized, and the dynamic increase in NKp46(intracellular)+CD56dim NK cells positively correlated with increased IFN-γ production to influenza virus restimulation after vaccination. In addition, anti-NKp46 antibodies blocked IFN-γ responses. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism underlying vaccine-induced immunity and NK-related diseases, which may help to design persisting and universal vaccines in the future.
Project description:Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were isolated from a buffy coat (Australian Blood Bank) using Ficoll methodology. CD4+ T cells were isolated using Dynal Beads kit. Pure CD4+ T cells were then stained using a cocktail of monoclonal antobodies (mAbs), including: anti-CD4PE, CD45RO ECD, CD62L APC-Cy7, CD25 APC, CD127 Pacific Blue. After incubation, cells were washed twice in PBS/FCS (0.2%), and sorted into five different cell subsets: CD4+CD25+CD127low CD62L+CD45RO- (naive regulatory T cells), CD4+CD25+CD127low CD62L+/- CD45RO+ (activated regulatory T cells), CD4+CD25+CD127hi CD62L+/- CD45RO+ (memory T cells), CD4+CD25-CD127low CD62L+/- CD45RO+ (effector T cells) and CD4+CD25-CD127hi CD62L+ CD45RO- (naive T cells).
Project description:Human CD8(+) effector T cells derived from CD45RO(+)CD62L(+) precursors enriched for central memory (TCM) precursors retain the capacity to engraft and reconstitute functional memory upon adoptive transfer, whereas effectors derived from CD45RO(+)CD62L(-) precursors enriched for effector memory precursors do not. Here we sought to compare the engraftment fitness and function of CD8(+) effector T cells derived from CD45RA(+)CD62L(+) precursors enriched for naïve and stem cell memory precursors (TN/SCM) with that of TCM. We found that cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) derived from TCM transcribed higher levels of CD28, FOS, INF?, Eomesodermin (Eomes), and lower levels of BCL2L11, maintained higher levels of phosphorylated AKT, and displayed enhanced sensitivity to the proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of ?-chain cytokines compared to CTLs derived from TN/SCM. Higher frequencies of CTLs derived from TCM retained CD28 expression and upon activation secreted higher levels of IL-2. In NOD/Scid IL-2R?C(null) mice, CD8(+) TCM derived CTLs engrafted to higher frequencies in response to human IL-15 and mounted robust proliferative responses to an immunostimulatory vaccine. Similarly, CD8(+) TCM derived CD19CAR(+) CTLs exhibited superior antitumor potency following adoptive transfer compared to their CD8(+) TN/SCM derived counterparts. These studies support the use of TCM enriched cell products for adoptive therapy of cancer.
Project description:Understanding early immunological events during HIV-1 infection that may set the course of disease progression is important for identifying correlates of viral control. This study explores the association of differentiation profiles of HIV-specific and total memory CD8(+) T cells with viral set point. A cohort of 47 HIV-1-infected individuals, with differing viral set points at 12 mo, were recruited during acute infection. We identified that the magnitude of IFN-gamma(+) T cell responses at 6 mo postinfection did not associate with viral set point at 12 mo. A subset of 16 individuals was further studied to characterize CD8(+) T cells for expression patterns of markers for memory differentiation, survival (CD127), senescence (CD57), and negative regulation (programmed death-1). We show that viral control and the predicted tempo of HIV disease progression in the first year of infection was associated with a synchronous differentiation of HIV-specific and total CD8(+) memory subpopulations. At 6-9 mo postinfection, those with low viral set points had a significantly higher proportion of early differentiated HIV-specific and total memory CD8(+) cells of a central memory (CD45RO(+)CD27(+)CCR7(+)) and intermediate memory (CD45RO(-)CD27(+)CCR7(-)) phenotype. Those with high viral set points possessed significantly larger frequencies of effector memory (CD45RO(+)CD27(-)CCR7(-)) cells. The proportions of memory subsets significantly correlated with CD38(+)CD8(+) T cells. Thus, it is likely that a high Ag burden resulting in generalized immune activation may drive differentiation of HIV-specific and total memory CD8(+) T cells.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important players in the regulation of T-cell functionality. However, comprehensive insight into the extent of age-related miRNA changes in T cells is lacking. We established miRNA expression patterns of CD45RO- naïve and CD45RO+ memory T-cell subsets isolated from peripheral blood cells from young and elderly individuals. Unsupervised clustering of the miRNA expression data revealed an age-related clustering in the CD45RO- T cells, while CD45RO+ T cells clustered based on expression of CD4 and CD8. Seventeen miRNAs showed an at least 2-fold up- or downregulation in CD45RO- T cells obtained from young as compared to old donors. Validation on the same and independent samples revealed a statistically significant age-related upregulation of miR-21, miR-223 and miR-15a. In a T-cell subset analysis focusing on known age-related phenotypic changes, we showed significantly higher miR-21 and miR-223 levels in CD8+CD45RO-CCR7- TEMRA compared to CD45RO-CCR7+ TNAIVE-cells. Moreover, miR-21 but not miR-223 levels were significantly increased in CD45RO-CD31- post-thymic TNAIVE cells as compared to thymic CD45RO-CD31+ TNAIVE cells. Upon activation of CD45RO- TNAIVE cells we observed a significant induction of miR-21 especially in CD4+ T cells, while miR-223 levels significantly decreased only in CD4+ T cells. Besides composition and activation-induced changes, we showed a borderline significant increase in miR-21 levels upon an increasing number of population doublings in CD4+ T-cell clones. Together, our results show that ageing related changes in miRNA expression are dominant in the CD45RO- T-cell compartment. The differential expression patterns can be explained by age related changes in T-cell composition, i.e. accumulation of CD8+ TEMRA and CD4+ post-thymic expanded CD31- T cells and by cellular ageing, as demonstrated in a longitudinal clonal culture model.
Project description:Exaggerated CD4(+) T helper 2-specific cytokine producing memory T cell responses developing concomitantly with a T helper 1 response might have a detrimental role in immunity to infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To assess the dynamics of Ag-specific memory T cell compartments in the context of filarial infection, we used multiparameter flow cytometry on PBMCs from 25 microfilaremic filarial-infected (Inf) and 14 filarial-uninfected (Uninf) subjects following stimulation with filarial Ag (BmA) or with the M. tuberculosis-specific Ag culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10). Our data demonstrated that the Inf group had a marked increase in BmA-specific CD4(+)IL-4(+) cells (median net frequency compared with baseline [Fo] = 0.09% versus 0.01%; p = 0.038) but also to CFP-10 (Fo = 0.16% versus 0.007%; p = 0.04) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (Fo = 0.49% versus 0.26%; p = 0.04). The Inf subjects showed a BmA-specific expansion of CD4(+)CD45RO(+)IL-4(+) producing central memory (TCM, CD45RO(+)CCR7(+)CD27(+); Fo = 1.1% versus 0.5%; p = 0.04) as well as effector memory (TEM, CD45RO(+)CCR7(-)CD27(-); Fo = 1.5% versus 0.2%; p = 0.03) with a similar but nonsignificant response to CFP-10. In addition, there was expansion of CD4(+)IL-4(+)CD45RA(+)CCR7(+)CD27(+) (naive-like) in Inf individuals compared with Uninf subjects. Among Inf subjects with definitive latent tuberculosis, there were no differences in frequencies of IL-4-producing cells within any of the memory compartments compared with the Uninf group. Our data suggest that filarial infection induces Ag-specific, exaggerated IL-4 responses in distinct T cell memory compartments to M. tuberculosis-specific Ags, which are attenuated in subjects who are able to mount a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to M. tuberculosis.