Identification of de novo LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon integration sites in HeLa S3 cells by ATLAS-seq-neo (unselected insertions)
ABSTRACT: We used ATLAS-seq-neo to map the sites of integration of an engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon into the genome of HeLa S3 cells. In brief, we transfected cells with a plasmid-borne L1.3 element carrying a neomycin-resistance-based retrotransposition cassette, as well as a hygromycin-resistance cassette on the plasmid backbone. For this set of experiments, cells were only selected for transfection (hygromycin) but not for retrotransposition (neomycin). Then we prepared ATLAS-seq-neo libraries. Each sample corresponds to an independent transfection and pool of hygromycin-resistant cells. ATLAS-seq-neo relies on the random mechanical fragmentation of the genomic DNA to ensure high-coverage, ligation of adapter sequences, suppression PCR-amplification of the 3' end L1 junction with its flanking genomic sequence, and Ion Torrent sequencing using single-end 400 bp read chemistry. The primer used for suppression PCR specifically targets the engineered element and not endogenous copies as in the original ATLAS-seq protocol (Philippe et al. eLife 2016). For some libraries, the linker-ligated genomic DNA was digested with BamHI, which cuts downstream of L1 polyA site in the plasmid backbone, to limit amplification from the plasmid and enrich for retrotransposition-mediated insertion events into the genomic DNA.
Project description:We used ATLAS-seq-neo to map the sites of integration of an engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon into the genome of HeLa S3 cells. In brief, we transfected cells with a plasmid-borne L1.3 element carrying a NeoR-based retrotransposition cassette. Cells were selected by G418 and used to prepare ATLAS-seq-neo libraries. Each sample corresponds to an independent transfection and pool of G418-resistant cells. ATLAS-seq-neo relies on the random mechanical fragmentation of the genomic DNA to ensure high-coverage, ligation of adapter sequences, suppression PCR-amplification of the 3' end L1 junction with its flanking genomic sequence, and Ion Torrent sequencing using single-end 400 bp read chemistry. The primer used for suppression PCR specifically targets the engineered element and not endogenous copies as in the original ATLAS-seq protocol (Philippe et al. eLife 2016).
Project description:We used ATLAS-seq to comprehensively map the genomic location of LINE-1 elements belonging to the youngest and potentially polymorphic subfamily (L1HS-Ta). This was performed in a panel of 12 human primary or transformed cell lines (BJ, IMR90, MRC5, H1, K562, HCT116, HeLa S3, HepG2, MCF7, HEK-293, HEK-293T, 2102Ep). In brief, ATLAS-seq relies on the random mechanical fragmentation of the genomic DNA to ensure high-coverage, ligation of adapter sequences, suppression PCR-amplification of L1HS-Ta element junctions, and Ion Torrent sequencing using single-end 400 bp read chemistry. A notable aspect of ATLAS-seq is that we can obtain both L1 downstream and upstream junctions (3'- and 5'-ATLAS-seq libraries, respectively), for full-length L1 elements. Note that a 10-nt sample-specific barcode has been removed at the 5' end of the reads in the .fastq files upon demultiplexing. This was achieved using cutadapt v1.9.2.dev0 (with the following parameters: -e 0.1 -q 10 -m 25 -g <barcode_name>=^<barcode_sequence>)
Project description:We used ATLAS-seq to map the sites of integration of an engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon into the genome of HeLa S3 cells. Then, we compared the position of these sites with publicly available genomic datasets. In order to cross-corroborate our findings with datasets obtained in the same cell stock as used in our retrotransposition assays, we also performed H3K4me1 ChIP-seq.
Project description:Somatic L1 retrotransposition events have been shown to occur in epithelial cancers1-8. Here, we attempted to determine how early somatic L1 insertions occurred during the development of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Using L1-targeted resequencing (L1-seq), we studied different stages of four colorectal cancers arising from colonic polyps, seven pancreatic carcinomas, as well as seven gastric cancers. Surprisingly, we found somatic L1 insertions not only in all cancer types and metastases, but also in colonic adenomas, well-known cancer precursors. Some insertions were also present in low quantities in normal GI tissues, occasionally caught in the act of being clonally fixed in the adjacent tumors. Insertions in adenomas and cancers numbered in the hundreds and many were present in multiple tumor sections implying clonal distribution. Our results demonstrate that extensive somatic insertional mutagenesis occurs very early during the development of GI tumors, probably before dysplastic growth. We assessed the impact of somatic L1 insertions on the expression of the corresponding protein-coding genes by comparing protein abundance in the polyp with the highest number of somatic L1 insertions with that of its paired normal colon using mass spectrometry analysis. Of the 10 validated somatic insertions that were in protein coding regions in the polyp, two proteins – KIAA1217 and WARS2 – were downregulated in the adenoma >90% and >70%, respectively.
Project description:Though important for gene regulation most studies of genome organisation use either fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) or chromosome conformation capture (3C) methods. FISH directly visualises the spatial relationship of sequences, but is usually applied to a few loci at a time. The frequency at which sequences are ligated together by formaldehyde crosslinking can be measured genome-wide by 3C methods, with higher frequencies thought to reflect shorter distances. FISH and 3C should therefore give the same views of genome organisation, but this has not been tested extensively. We investigate the murine HoxD locus with 5C and FISH in different developmental and activity states, and in the presence or absence of epigenetic regulators. We identify situations where the two datasets are concordant, but find other conditions where chromatin topographies extrapolated from 5C or FISH data are not compatible. We conclude that products captured by 3C do not always reflect spatial proximity, with ligation occurring between sequences located hundreds of nanometers apart – influenced by nuclear environment and chromatin composition. We conclude that results obtained at high-resolution with either 3C methods or by FISH alone must be interpreted with caution and that conclusions about genome organisation should be validated by independent methods. 5C oligonucleotides were designed around EcoRI restriction sites following an alternative scheme
Project description:We investigated a panel of 21 genes by parallel sequencing on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine platform. We sequenced 65 CRCs that were treated with cetuximab or panitumumab ( 37 samples were responsive and 28 were resistant).
Project description:Somatic retrotranspositions of various mobile genetic elements take place in tumors, and L1 retroelements physiologically transpose in neural progenitor cells during neurogenesis. We sequenced whole genomes of the neural progenitor cell-derived subependymal giant cell astrocytomas that typically affect patients suffering from the neurodevelopmental disease Tuberous Sclerosis. Here we show an unprecedented increased L1 retrotransposition in these tumors, with tens of thousands new genomic insertions, that preferentially invade genes involved in neural activity, synaptic transmission and cancer. The prevalent insertions are short, nested in preexisting L1 repeats in the same orientation, trimmed in both the 5’ and 3’ ends, representing unorthodox retrotransposition”. Most somatic L1 inserts in the genomically stable astrocytomas are nested in preexisting L1 elements. This preferred nested integration may act as a “lightning rod” mechanism dampening the effects of massive retrotransposition. In contrast, the enhanced transposition found in genomically unstable breast tumors includes regions of high-density clustered insertion, transposminos. These clustered insertions are expected to be more detrimental, as many of them are non-nested and frequently invade genic and exonic sequences. Exaggerated L1 retrotransposition may be a common stochastic damaging pathway in neurological disorders and cancer. Overall design: four subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). Three out of four showed a massive number of Mobile Element Insertions (MEI), mainly L1 retrotranspositions(Hil1 samples ) , those are compared to the fourth without this high MEI element number (Lol1 sample )
Project description:We performed whole-exome sequencing of tumour bulks from opposite side of the neoplasm (A/B). From each we selected a panel of sub-clonal mutations and profiled multiple single tumour glands from the same neoplasm using high depth targeted re-sequencing. The aim was to infer tumour evolutionary dynamics and reconstruct the timeline of progression
Project description:L1 retrotransposons are active elements in the genome, capable of mobilization in neuronal progenitor cells. Previously, we showed that chromatin remodeling during neuronal differentiation allows for a transient stimulation of L1 transcription. The activity of L1 retrotransposons during brain development can impact gene expression and neuronal function. Here we show that L1 neuronal retrotransposition in rodents is increased in the absence of MeCP2, a protein involved in global methylation and human neurodevelopmental diseases. Using neuronal progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and human tissues, we revealed that Rett syndrome patients, with MeCP2 mutations, have increased susceptibility for L1 retrotransposition. Our data demonstrate that disease-related genetic mutations can influence the frequency of neuronal L1 retrotransposition, thereby increasing brain-specific genetic mosaicism. Genetic reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state (induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs) by over-expression of specific genes has been accomplished for fibroblasts derived from controls and Rett syndrome patients. Different clones from each were compared to respective original fibroblasts and a human embryonic stem cell line. Gene expression profiles measured using human genome Affymetrix Gene Chip arrays were grouped by hierarchical clustering, and correlation coefficients were computed for all pair-wise comparisons.