ScRNA-seq of human fetal lung primary tissues and cell cultures derived from fetal bud tip progenitors under dual SMAD treatment
ABSTRACT: Underdeveloped lungs are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, but our ability to help these patients by speeding up lung development are hindered by a lack of understanding of human lung developmental biology. Here, we performed single cell RNA sequencing of the human fetal lung from samples spanning from 11.5 weeks gestation to 21 weeks gestation from the distal lung, middle airways, and the tracheal epithelium. The primary goal of this experiment was to define fetal cell states to serve as a gold standard for pluripotent stem cell-derived lung cells and tissues, and to identify potential signaling pathways that drive differentiation of lung progenitor cells to mature cell types. Additionally, we generated bud tip progenitor organoids from 12 week human fetal lung bud tip progenitors. We show that treatment of bud tip progenitor organoids with a short pulse of dual SMAD activation (BMP4+TGFb1) led to the upregulation of lung basal cell markers, a cell type that serves as a critical stem cell for the adult airway, and that further treatment with dual SMAD inhibition leads to the generation of airway-like organoids containing differentiated cell types of the adult airway, including basal stem cells.
Project description:The lung epithelium is derived from the endodermal germ layer, which undergoes a complex series of endoderm-mesoderm-mediated signaling events to generate the final arborized network of conducting airways (bronchi, bronchioles) and gas-exchanging units (alveoli). These stages include endoderm induction, anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral patterning, lung specification, lung budding, branching morphogenesis, and, finally, maturation. Here we describe a protocol that recapitulates several of these milestones in order to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into ventral-anterior foregut spheroids and further into two distinct types of organoids: human lung organoids and bud tip progenitor organoids. The resulting human lung organoids possess cell types and structures that resemble the bronchi/bronchioles of the developing human airway surrounded by lung mesenchyme and cells expressing alveolar-cell markers. The bud tip progenitor organoids possess a population of highly proliferative multipotent cells with in vitro multilineage differentiation potential and in vivo engraftment potential. Human lung organoids can be generated from hPSCs in 50-85 d, and bud tip progenitor organoids can be generated in 22 d. The two hPSC-derived models presented here have been benchmarked with human fetal tissue and found to be representative of human fetal-like tissue. The bud tip progenitor organoids are thus ideal for exploring epithelial fate decisions, while the human lung organoids can be used to model epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk during human lung development. In addition to their applications in developmental biology, human lung organoids and bud tip progenitor organoids may be implemented in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and pharmaceutical safety and efficacy testing.
Project description:Underdeveloped lungs are the primary cause of death in premature infants, however, little is known about stem and progenitor cell maintenance during human lung development. In this study, we have identified that FGF7, Retinoic Acid and CHIR-99021, a small molecule that inhibits GSK3 to activate Wnt signaling, support in vitro maintenance of primary human fetal lung bud tip progenitor cells in a progenitor state. Furthermore, these factors are sufficient to derive a population of human bud tip-like progenitor cells in 3D organoid structures from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC). Functional studies showed that hPSC-derived bud tip progenitor organoids do not contain any mesenchymal cell types, maintain multilineage potential in vitro and are able to engraft into the airways of injured mice and respond to systemic factors. We performed RNA-sequencing to assess the degree of similarity in global gene expression profiles between the full human fetal lung (59-127 days gestation), isolated human fetal bud tip progenitors, organoids grown from primary fetal bud tip progenitors, and hPSC-derived bud tip organoids. Results showed that hPSC-derived organoids have molecular profiles similar to organoids generated from primary human fetal lung tissue. Gene expression differences between hPSC-derived bud tip organoids and fetal progenitor organoids may be related to the presence of contaminating mesenchymal cells in primary cultures. hPSC-derived bud tip organoids are generated from a well-defined human cell sources, offering a distinct advantage over rare primary tissue as a means to study human specific lung development, homeostasis and disease.<br>Sample Nomenclature - Description<br> -------------------------------------------------------------------------<br> Peripheral fetal lung the distal/peripheral portion of the fetal lung (i.e., distal 0.5 cm) was excised from the rest of the lung using a scalpel. This includes all components of the lung (e.g., epithelial, mesenchymal, vascular). <br>Isolated fetal bud tip the bud peripheral portion of the fetal lung was excised with a scalpel and subjected to enzymatic digestion and microdissection. The epithelium was dissected and separated from the mesenchyme, but a small amount of associated mesenchyme likely remained. <br>Fetal progenitor organoid 3D organoid structures that arose from culturing isolated fetal epithelial bud tips. <br>Foregut spheroid 3D foregut endoderm structure as described in Dye et al. (2015). Gives rise to patterned lung organoid (PLO) when grown in 3F medium. <br> Patterned lung organoid (PLO) lung organoids that were generated by differentiating hPSCs, as described throughout the manuscript. <br> Bud tip organoid organoids derived from PLOs, enriched for SOX2/SOX9 co-expressing cells, and grown/passaged in 3F medium.
Project description:The current study aimed to understand the developmental mechanisms regulating bud tip progenitor cells in the human fetal lung, which are present during branching morphogenesis, and to use this information to induce a bud tip progenitor-like population from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in vitro. We identified cues that maintained isolated human fetal lung epithelial bud tip progenitor cells in vitro and induced three-dimensional hPSC-derived organoids with bud tip-like domains. Bud tip-like domains could be isolated, expanded, and maintained as a nearly homogeneous population. Molecular and cellular comparisons revealed that hPSC-derived bud tip-like cells are highly similar to native lung bud tip progenitors. hPSC-derived epithelial bud tip-like structures survived in vitro for over 16 weeks, could be easily frozen and thawed, maintained multilineage potential, and successfully engrafted into the airways of immunocompromised mouse lungs, where they persisted for up to 6 weeks and gave rise to several lung epithelial lineages.
Project description:This study utilizes multi-omic biological data to perform deep immunophenotyping on the major immune cell classes in COVID-19 patients. 10X Genomics Chromium Single Cell Kits were used with Biolegend TotalSeq-C human antibodies to gather single-cell transcriptomic, surface protein, and TCR/BCR sequence information from 254 COVID-19 blood draws (a draw near diagnosis (-BL) and a draw a few days later (-AC)) and 16 healthy donors.
Project description:Most vertebrate organs are composed of epithelium surrounded by support and stromal tissues formed from mesenchyme cells, which are not generally thought to form organized progenitor pools. Here, we use clonal cell labeling with multicolor reporters to characterize individual mesenchymal progenitors in the developing mouse lung. We observe a diversity of mesenchymal progenitor populations with different locations, movements, and lineage boundaries. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) progenitors map exclusively to mesenchyme ahead of budding airways. Progenitors recruited from these tip pools differentiate into ASM around airway stalks; flanking stalk mesenchyme can be induced to form an ASM niche by a lateral bud or by an airway tip plus focal Wnt signal. Thus, mesenchymal progenitors can be organized into localized and carefully controlled domains that rival epithelial progenitor niches in regulatory sophistication.
Project description:Genetic studies have shown that FGF10/FGFR2 signaling is required for airway branching morphogenesis and FGF10 functions as a chemoattractant factor for distal epithelial cells during lung development. However, the detail downstream cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been fully characterized. Using live imaging of ex vivo cultured lungs, we found that tip airway epithelial progenitor cells migrate faster than cleft cells during airway bud formation and this migration process is controlled by FGFR2-mediated ERK1/2 signaling. Additionally, we found that airway progenitor cells that migrate faster tend to become distal airway progenitor cells. We identified that Anxa4 is a downstream target of ERK1/2 signaling. Anxa4-/- airway epithelial cells exhibit a "lag-behind" behavior and tend to stay at the stalk airways. Moreover, we found that Anxa4-overexpressing cells tend to migrate to the bud tips. Finally, we demonstrated that Anxa4 functions redundantly with Anxa1 and Anxa6 in regulating endoderm budding process. Our study demonstrates that ERK1/2/Anxa4 signaling plays a role in promoting the migration of airway epithelial progenitor cells to distal airway tips and ensuring their distal cell fate.
Project description:Organoids represent both a potentially powerful tool for the study cell-cell interactions within tissue-like environments, and a platform for tissue regenerative approaches. The development of lung tissue-like organoids from human adult-derived cells has not previously been reported. Here we combined human adult primary bronchial epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, and lung microvascular endothelial cells in supportive 3D culture conditions to generate airway organoids. We demonstrate that randomly-seeded mixed cell populations undergo rapid condensation and self-organization into discrete epithelial and endothelial structures that are mechanically robust and stable during long term culture. After condensation airway organoids generate invasive multicellular tubular structures that recapitulate limited aspects of branching morphogenesis, and require actomyosin-mediated force generation and YAP/TAZ activation. Despite the proximal source of primary epithelium used in the airway organoids, discrete areas of both proximal and distal epithelial markers were observed over time in culture, demonstrating remarkable epithelial plasticity within the context of organoid cultures. Airway organoids also exhibited complex multicellular responses to a prototypical fibrogenic stimulus (TGF-?1) in culture, and limited capacity to undergo continued maturation and engraftment after ectopic implantation under the murine kidney capsule. These results demonstrate that the airway organoid system developed here represents a novel tool for the study of disease-relevant cell-cell interactions, and establishes this platform as a first step toward cell-based therapy for chronic lung diseases based on de novo engineering of implantable airway tissues.
Project description:Here, we performed single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of human fetal duodenal tissue samples from 8 individual biological specimens across 7-21 weeks of gestation. The data set is composed of over 37,000 cells (between 3,000-9,000 cells per time point) from diverse intestinal lineages. Lineages captured include epithelium, mesenchyme, immune, neurons, and endothelium. These data were used to specifically interrogate the development and emergence of mesenchymal lineages during human development.
Project description:Heterogeneity of lung tumor endothelial cell (TEC) phenotypes across patients, species (human/mouse) and models (in vivo/vitro) remains poorly inventoried at the single-cell-level. We single-cell RNA-sequenced 56,771 ECs from human/mouse (peri)-tumoral lung and cultured human lung TECs, detected 17 known and discovered 16 novel phenotypes, including TECs presumably regulating immune surveillance. We resolved the canonical tip TECs into a known migratory tip and a novel basement-membrane remodeling breach phenotype. Tip-TEC signatures correlated with patient-survival, and tip/breach TECs were most sensitive to VEGF-blockade. By similarity analysis, only tip-TECs were congruent across species/models and shared conserved markers. Integrated analysis of the scRNA-seq data with orthogonal multi-omics and meta-analysis data across different human tumors, validated by functional analysis, identified collagen-modification as angiogenic candidate pathway.
Project description:Recapitulation of lung development from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in three dimensions (3D) would allow deeper insight into human development, as well as the development of innovative strategies for disease modelling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. We report here the generation from hPSCs of lung bud organoids (LBOs) that contain mesoderm and pulmonary endoderm and develop into branching airway and early alveolar structures after xenotransplantation and in Matrigel 3D culture. Expression analysis and structural features indicated that the branching structures reached the second trimester of human gestation. Infection in vitro with respiratory syncytial virus, which causes small airway obstruction and bronchiolitis in infants, led to swelling, detachment and shedding of infected cells into the organoid lumens, similar to what has been observed in human lungs. Introduction of mutation in HPS1, which causes an early-onset form of intractable pulmonary fibrosis, led to accumulation of extracellular matrix and mesenchymal cells, suggesting the potential use of this model to recapitulate fibrotic lung disease in vitro. LBOs therefore recapitulate lung development and may provide a useful tool to model lung disease.