Single cell RNA-seq of great ape cerebral organoids
ABSTRACT: The human brain has changed dramatically from other primate species, but the genetic and developmental mechanisms behind the differences remains unclear. Here we used single cell RNA sequencing based on 10X technology to explore temporal transcriptomic dynamics and cellular heterogeneity in cerebral organoids derived from human and non-human primates chimpanzee and rhesus macaque stem cells. Using cerebral organoids as a proxy of early brain development, we detect a delayed pace of human brain development relative to the other two primate species. Additional human-specific gene expression patterns resolved to different cell states through progenitors to neurons are also found. Our data provide a transcriptomic cell atlas of primate early brain development, and illustrate features that are unique to humans.
Project description:The human brain has changed dramatically from other primate species, but the genetic and developmental mechanisms behind the differences remains unclear. Here we used single cell RNA sequencing based on 10X technology to explore temporal transcriptomic dynamics and cellular heterogeneity in cerebral organoids derived from human and non-human primates chimpanzee and rhesus macaque stem cells. Using cerebral organoids as a proxy of early brain development, we detect a delayed pace of human brain development relative to the other two primate species. Additional human-specific gene expression patterns resolved to different cell states through progenitors to neurons are also found. Our data provide a transcriptomic cell atlas of primate early brain development, and illustrate features that are unique to humans.
Project description:The human brain has changed dramatically since humans diverged from our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and the other great apes. However, the genetic and developmental programs underlying this divergence are not fully understood. Here, we generate single-nucleus RNA-seq data of human, chimpanzee and macaque adult prefrontal cortex. Spatial information is obtained by isolating nuclei from sequential sections sliced from basal to apical positions. By comparing transcriptome of different cell types in the three species, we map human-specific expression in adult prefrontal cortex. By comparing to single cell RNA-seq data of cerebral organoids of the same species, we find developmental differences that persist into adulthood, as well as cell state-specific changes that occur exclusively in the adult brain.
Project description:Cerebral organoids – three-dimensional cultures of human cerebral tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells – have emerged as models of human cortical development. However, the extent to which in vitro organoid systems recapitulate neural progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation programs observed in vivo remains unclear. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to dissect and compare cell composition and progenitor-to-neuron lineage relationships in human cerebral organoids and fetal neocortex. Covariation network analysis using the fetal neocortex data reveals known and novel interactions among genes central to neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In the organoid, we detect diverse progenitors and differentiated cell types of neuronal and mesenchymal lineages, and identify cells that derived from regions resembling the fetal neocortex. We find that these organoid cortical cells use gene expression programs remarkably similar to those of the fetal tissue in order to organize into cerebral cortex-like regions. Our comparison of in vivo and in vitro cortical single cell transcriptomes illuminates the genetic features underlying human cortical development that can be studied in organoid cultures. 734 single-cell transcriptomes from human fetal neocortex or human cerebral organoids from multiple time points were analyzed in this study. All single cell samples were processed on the microfluidic Fluidigm C1 platform and contain 92 external RNA spike-ins. Fetal neocortex data were generated at 12 weeks post conception (chip 1: 81 cells; chip 2: 83 cells) and 13 weeks post conception (62 cells). Cerebral organoid data were generated from dissociated whole organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cell line 409B2 (iPSC 409B2) at 33 days (40 cells), 35 days (68 cells), 37 days (71 cells), 41 days (74 cells), and 65 days (80 cells) after the start of embryoid body culture. Cerebral organoid data were also generated from microdissected cortical-like regions from H9 embryonic stem cell derived organoids at 53 days (region 1, 48 cells; region 2, 48 cells) or from iPSC 409B2 organoids at 58 days (region 3, 43 cells; region 4, 36 cells).
Project description:Bulk ATAC-seq was performed on human, chimpanzee, bonobo, and macaque stem cell-derived cerebral organoids. ATAC-seq was performed on day 60 (2 months old) and day 120 (4 months old) cerebral organoids.
Project description:Organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells recapitulate the early three-dimensional organization of human brain, but whether they establish the epigenomic and transcriptional programs essential for brain development is unknown. We compared epigenomic and gene regulatory features in cerebral organoids and human fetal brain, using genome-wide, base resolution DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptomic dynamics in organoids faithfully modeled gene expression trajectories in early-to-mid human fetal brains. We found that early non-CG methylation accumulation at super-enhancers in both fetal brain and organoids marks forthcoming transcriptional repression in the fully developed brain. 74% of 35,627 demethylated regions identified during organoid differentiation overlapped with fetal brain regulatory elements. Interestingly, pericentromeric repeats showed widespread demethylation in multiple types of in vitro human neural differentiation models but not in fetal brain. Our study reveals that organoids recapitulate many epigenomic features of mid-fetal human brain and also identified novel non-CG methylation signatures of brain development. Overall design: MethylC-seq and RNA-seq of Cerebral Organoids differentiation
Project description:Single cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) was performed at various stages of differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to 4 month old cerebral organoids. scATAC-seq was performed on the following days of differentiation: day 0 (pluripotent stem cell), day 4 (embryoid body), day 10 (neuroectoderm), day 15 (neuroepithelium), day 30 (1 month old cerebral organoid), day 60 (2 months old cerebral organoid), and day 120 (4 months old cerebral organoid).
Project description:We analyzed gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human whole-brain organoids that has developed for 3-6 months. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which we show are related to known endogenous classes, including subpopulations of neurons and progenitors of the cerebral cortex Overall design: Single cell Droplet sequencing of human cerebral organoid
Project description:Cerebral organoids, three-dimensional cultures that model organogenesis, provide a new platform to investigate human brain development. High cost, variability and tissue heterogeneity limit accessibility and broad applications of current organoid technologies. Here we developed a miniaturized spinning bioreactor (SpinΩ) to generate forebrain-specific organoids from human iPSCs. These organoids recapitulate key features of human cortical development, including progenitor zone organization, neurogenesis, gene expression, and importantly, a distinct human-specific outer radial glia cell layer. We have also developed protocols to generate midbrain and hypothalamic organoids. Finally, we employed this forebrain organoid platform to model Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure. Quantitative analyses revealed that preferential, productive ZIKA infection of cortical neural progenitors leads to increased cell death and reduced proliferation, resulting in decreased neuronal cell layer volume that resembles microcephaly. Together, our brain region-specific organoids and SpinΩ provide an accessible and versatile platform for modeling human brain development and diseases, and for compound testing. Overall design: Time course of human cerebral organoid cultures. No Zika virus infection is involved.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a diverse category of transcripts with poor conservation and have expanded greatly in primates, particularly in their brain. We identified a lncRNA, which has acquired 16 microRNA response elements (MREs) for miR-143-3p in the Catarrhini branch of primates. This lncRNA termed LncND (neuro-development) gets expressed in neural progenitor cells and then declines in mature neurons. Binding and release of miR-143-3p, by LncND, can control the expression of Notch. Its expression is highest in radial glia cells in the ventricular and outer subventricular zones of human fetal brain. Down-regulation of LncND in neuroblastoma cells reduced cell proliferation and induced neuronal differentiation, an effect phenocopied by miR-143-3p over-expression and supported by RNA-seq analysis. These findings support a role for LncND in miRNA-mediated regulation of Notch signaling in the expansion of the neural progenitor pool of primates and hence contributing to the rapid growth of the cerebral cortex. Cerebral organoids were generated as in Lancaster et al. (Lancaster and Knoblich, 2014). Organoids were dissociated into single cells and captured on C1 Single-Cell Auto Prep Integrated Fluidic Circuit (IFC) (Fluidigm). The RNA extraction and amplification was performed on the chip as described by the manufacturer. We captured 68 single-cells on a C1 Single-Cell Auto Prep System (Fluidigm) and sequenced the RNA on a NextSeq500 System (Illumina) (Pollen et al., 2014). Out of 68 cells, we obtained 60 high quality cells.
Project description:Single cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) was performed on bonobo induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived cerebral organoids. scATAC-seq was performed on day 60 (2 months old cerebral organoid) and day 120 (4 months old cerebral organoid).