Project description:Male C3H/HeOuJ and CAST/EiJ mice were treated with diethylnitrosamine to induce liver tumours. We collected liver samples from untreated P15 mice for control experiments. Liver tissue samples were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and total RNA was extracted using the AllPrep 96 DNA/RNA Kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Libraries were prepared using the TruSeq Stranded Total RNA Library Prep Kit with Ribo-Zero Gold (Illumina) and sequenced on an Illumna HiSeq4000 to produce 150bp paired-end reads.
Project description:AID promotes chromosomal translocations by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and oncogenes in G1. RPA is a ssDNA-binding protein that associates with resected DSBs in the S phase and facilitates the assembly of factors involved in homologous repair (HR) such as Rad51. Notably, RPA deposition also marks sites of AID-mediated damage, but its role in Ig gene recombination remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that RPA associates asymmetrically with resected ssDNA in response to lesions created by AID, RAG, or other nucleases. Small amounts of RPA are deposited at AID targets in G1 in an ATM-dependent manner. In contrast, recruitment in S-G2/M is extensive, ATM-independent, and associated with Rad51 accumulation. RPA in S-G2/M increases in NHEJ-deficient lymphocytes, where there is more extensive DNA-end resection. Thus, most RPA recruitment during CSR represents salvage of un-repaired breaks by homology-based pathways during the S-G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Chip-Seq of RPA from mouse activated B cells (n = 40), mouse thymocytes (n = 6), and MEFs (n = 1). Different genotypes and/or inhibitors were used.
Project description:Self-maintaining gMacs are present in the submucosal and myenteric plexus of the intestine where they maintain enteric neurons and submucosal vasculature YFP-positive and YFP-negative CD11b+, CD64+ macrophages were sorted from lamina propria and muscularis externa of Cx3cr1CreERT2.Rosa26-LSL-YFP animals, 35 weeks after tamoxifen administration. Four biological replicates each. YFP-positive and YFP-negative were compared within lamina propria and muscularis externa
Project description:The goals of this study were to identify LIN28 downstream gene targets in breast cancer cells. We use a subclone of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, MCF-7M as our model system. Methods: mRNA profiles from MCF-7M breast cancer cells treated with siRNA against non-targeting control (NT), LIN28, hnRNP A1, LIN28 and hnRNPA1 (LIN28A1) for 72 hrs were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2000. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were analyzed at the transcript isoform level with two methods: Burrows–Wheeler Aligner (BWA) followed by ANOVA (ANOVA) and TopHat followed by Cufflinks. qRT–PCR validation was performed using TaqMan and SYBR Green assays Results: Using an optimized data analysis workflow, we mapped over 200 million sequence reads per sample to the human genome (build h19). Each of the four groups had two biological replicates. We developed a custom method to identify alternative splicing events and identified 111 genes with significant (FDR<0.05) differential splicing for LIN28 depleted cells compared to non-targeting siRNA control, as well as 249 and 182 genes for hnRNP A1 and LIN28A1 respectively. RNA-seq data were validated with by qRT–PCR analysis of a subset of genes. Conclusions: Results reveal that LIN28 regulates alternative splicing and steady state mRNA expression of genes implicated in aspects of breast cancer biology. Notably, cells lacking LIN28 undergo significant isoform switching of the ENAH gene, resulting in a decrease in the expression of ENAH exon 11a isoform. Expression of ENAH isoform 11a has been shown to be elevated in breast cancers that express HER2. mRNA profiles of MCF-7M cells treated with siRNA for NT control, LIN28, hnRNP A1, and LIN28 plus hnRNP A1 (A1) (LIN28A1) were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2000
Project description:This research identifies a novel protein required for paramutation at the maize purple plant1 locus. This 'required to maintain repression2' (RMR2) protein represents the founding member of a plant-specific clade of hypothetical proteins. We show that RMR2 is required for transcriptional repression at the Pl1-Rhoades haplotype, for accumulation of 24 nt RNA species, and for maintenance of a 5-methylcytosine pattern distinct from that maintained by RNA polymerase IV. Genetic tests indicate that RMR2 is not required for paramutation occurring at the red1 locus. These results distinguish the paramutation-type mechanisms operating at specific haplotypes. The RMR2 clade of proteins provides a new entry point for understanding the diversity of epigenomic control operating in higher plants. Examination of small RNAs using Illumina's sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) platform to deep sequence small RNA libraries made from the 4-cm cobs of rmr2 mutant and non-mutant siblings.
Project description:Genome-wide measurements of histone modifications and transcription factor binding in mouse barelette progenitors, neurons and ESCs at different developmental stages and in different genotypes.
Project description:we report the partial methylome (CG-rich regions) of HEK293 cells and HEK293 cells over-expressing the BAHD1 gene (HEK-BAHD1) We used MEDIP-seq to identify genomic regions differentially methylated upon overexpression of the chromatin repressor BAHD1 in HEK293 cells.
Project description:Programmed mutagenesis of the immunoglobulin locus of B-lymphocytes during class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation requires RNA polymerase II (RNA polII) transcription complex dependent targeting of the DNA mutator, Activation Induced cytidine Deaminase (AID). AID deaminates cytidine residues on substrate sequences in the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus via a transcription-dependent mechanism and this activity is stimulated by the RNA polII stalling co-factor Spt5 and the eleven-subunit cellular non-coding RNA 3’-5’ exonucleolytic processing complex, RNA exosome. The mechanism by which the RNA exosome recognizes immunoglobulin locus RNA substrates to stimulate AID DNA deamination activity on its in vivo substrate sequences is an important question. Here we report that E3-ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 destabilizes AID-associated RNA polII by a ubiquitination event leading to generation of 3’-end free RNA exosome RNA substrates at the Ig locus and other AID target sequences genome-wide. Using highthrough-out RNA sequencing technology, we find that lack of Nedd4 activity in B cells leads to accumulation of RNA exosome substrates at AID target genes. Moreover, we find that Nedd4-deficient B cells are inefficient in undergoing class switch recombination. Taken together, our study links non-coding RNA processing following RNA polymerase II pausing with regulation of the mutator AID protein. Our study also identifies Nedd4 as a regulator of non-coding RNA that are generated by stalled RNA polII genome-wide. Splenic B cells from Nedd4+/+ and Nedd4-/- B cells fetal liver chimeric mice were were stimulated in culture for IgG1 CSR. Total RNA was isolated and evaluated with whole genome RNA-seq