RNA-Seq of sika deer antler-tip during the ossification stage
ABSTRACT: To obtain an overview of the antler tip gene expression profile during the ossification stage, a cDNA sample was prepared from antler tip and sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform.
Project description:To obtain an overview of the antler tip gene expression profile during the ossification stage, a cDNA sample was prepared from antler tip and sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform.
Project description:To obtain an overview of the antler tip gene expression profile during rapid growth period, a cDNA sample was prepared from antler tip and sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform.
Project description:Deer antlers are the only mammalian organs that can fully regenerate each year. During their growth phase, antlers of red deer extend at a rate of approximately 10 mm/day, a growth rate matched by the antler nerves. It was demonstrated in a previous study that extracts from deer velvet antler can promote neurite outgrowth from neural explants, suggesting a possible role for Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in antler innervation. Here we showed using the techniques of Northern blot analysis, denervation, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization that NGF mRNA was expressed in the regenerating antler, principally in the smooth muscle of the arteries and arterioles of the growing antler tip. Regenerating axons followed the route of the major blood vessels, located at the interface between the dermis and the reserve mesenchyme of the antler. Denervation experiments suggested a causal relationship exists between NGF mRNA expression in arterial smooth muscle and sensory axons in the antler tip. We hypothesize that NGF expressed in the smooth muscle of the arteries and arterioles promotes and maintains antler angiogenesis and this role positions NGF ahead of axons during antler growth. As a result, NGF can serve a second role, attracting sensory axons into the antler, and thus it can provide a guidance cue to define the nerve track. This would explain the phenomenon whereby re-innervation of the regenerating antler follows vascular ingrowth. The annual growth of deer antler presents a unique opportunity to better understand the factors involved in rapid nerve regeneration.
Project description:Deer antler, as the only mammalian regenerative appendage, provides an optimal model to study regenerative medicine. Antler harvested from red deer or sika deer were mainly study objects used to disclose the mechanism underlying antler regeneration over past decades. A previous study used proteomic technology to reveal the signaling pathways of antler stem cell derived from red deer. Moreover, transcriptome of antler tip from sika deer provide us with the essential genes, which regulated antler development and regeneration. However, antler comparison between red deer and sika deer has not been well studied. In our current study, proteomics were employed to analyze the biological difference of antler regeneration between sika deer and red deer. The proteomics profile was completed by searching the UniProt database, and differentially expressed proteins were identified by bioinformatic software. Thirty-six proteins were highly expressed in red deer antler, while 144 proteins were abundant in sika deer. GO and KEGG analysis revealed that differentially expressed proteins participated in the regulation of several pathways including oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome, extracellular matrix interaction, and PI3K-Akt pathway.
Project description:Molecular cloning and bioinformatics analysis of annexin A2 (ANXA2) gene in sika deer antler tip were conducted. The role of ANXA2 gene in the growth and development of the antler were analyzed initially.The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to clone the cDNA sequence of the ANXA2 gene from antler tip of sika deer (Cervus Nippon hortulorum) and the bioinformatics methods were applied to analyze the amino acid sequence of Anxa2 protein. The mRNA expression levels of the ANXA2 gene in different growth stages were examined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR).The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,020 bp encoding 339 amino acids long protein of calculated molecular weight 38.6 kDa and isoelectric point 6.09. Homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Anxa2 mature protein of sika deer had the closest genetic distance with Cervus elaphus and Bos mutus. Real time RT-PCR results showed that the gene had differential expression levels in different growth stages, and the expression level of the ANXA2 gene was the highest at metaphase (rapid growing period).ANXA2 gene may promote the cell proliferation, and the finding suggested Anxa2 as an important candidate for regulating the growth and development of deer antler.
Project description:Articular cartilage (AC) lacks ability to repair defects due to its avascular nature as healing process relies on cells being brought in by blood vessels. Multiple approaches have been taken to facilitate cartilage repair in clinics, to date there is no effective treatment available that can restores the AC lesion to a normally functioning level over extended periods. In this regard, antler cartilage is unique in being richly vascularised and hence can effectively repair and regenerate. Interestingly, antler stem cells, from which the vascularised cartilage is derived, can form avascular cartilage when taken away from their original niche, suggesting that the vascular or avascular state of antler cartilage is controlled by extrinsic factors. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this phenotype switch may help us to devise a way to trigger the effective intrinsic repair of AC. However, adoption of antler cartilage model for AC repair requires the demonstration that the cartilage specific signalling pathways also prevail in antler chondrogenesis. To achieve this, in the present study we silenced expression of Cbfa1, a key factor regulatingendochondral ossification, using RNAi, and showed that expression of the downstream genes type I collagen and osteocalcin were suppressed which, in turn, inhibited endochondral ossification process taking place in the antler stem cell-formed nodules. Therefore, we provided further evidence at molecular level that antler could be developed as novel model for the study of AC repair. The eventual identification of the extrinsic factors dictating the phenotype switch between the vascular and avascular state of antler cartilage will open up a new avenue for the cure of osteoarthritis.
Project description:Deer antlers are amazing natural appendages that grow faster than any other known mammalian bone. Antler growth occurs at the tip and is initially cartilage, which is later replaced by bone tissue. However, little is known regarding the precise role of cooperation between cell lineages and functional genes in regulating antler growth, and molecular mechanisms responsible for rapid growth remain elusive. In this study, we use an RNA-Seq approach to identify miRNA expression patterns during antler growth. Overall design: 2 samples
Project description:Deer antler is the only completely regenerable organ in mammals. During the rapid growth period, the antler proliferates even faster than cancerous tissue growth. However, the proliferation and development of antler have been in a stable and controllable growth cycle. In this study, we analyzed the time series expression data of nine samples from mesenchyme layer in three male sika deer in the early period of the antler with a saddle-like appearance (30 days), the rapid growth period of the antler with two branches (60 days), and the final period of the antler with three branches (90 days). Whole Transcriptome sequencing results show that in the 30 d versus 60 d group, 1,464 genes, 85 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and 61 miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed; 1,748 genes, 138 lncRNAs, and 78 miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed in 30d versus 90d group; and 816 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 49 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE lncRNAs), and 24 differentially expressed miRNA (DE miRNAs) were identified in 60d versus 90d group. A total of 182 miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs and 89 miRNA-lncRNA interaction pairs were screened from DEGs, DE miRNAs, and DE lncRNAs to construct the ceRNA regulatory network (ceRNET). In summary, we identified candidate mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs that regulate the development of antler tip. It may lay the foundation for further investigating the molecular mechanism of antler rapid growth and development.
Project description:Deer antler preparations have been used to strengthen bones for centuries. It is particularly rich in collagen type I. This study aimed to unravel part of the purported bioremedial effect of Sika deer antler collagen type I (SDA-Col I) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that SDA-Col I might be used to promote and regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. SDA-Col I might potentially provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of bone injury and/or in scaffolds for bone replacement strategies. Finally, isolation of SDA-Col I from deer antler represents a renewable, green, and uncomplicated way to obtain a biomedically valuable therapeutic.