ATAC-seq in human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs)
ABSTRACT: The human iPSC line H19101 was differentiated in vitro into cardiomyocytes using a 20-day differentiation protocol (Burridge et al. 2014 PMID 24930130 and Montefiori et al 2018 PMID 29988018 ). 50,000 cardiomyocytes were used in each ATAC-seq experiment. 8 replicates were pooled to obtain the final peak file.
Project description:A single hematopoietic stem cell can give rise to all blood cells with remarkable fidelity. Here, we define the chromatin accessibility and transcriptional landscape controlling this process in thirteen primary cell types that traverse the hematopoietic hierarchy. Exploiting the finding that enhancer landscapes better reflect cell identity than mRNA levels, we enable "enhancer cytometry" for accurate enumeration of pure cell types from complex populations. We further reveal the lineage ontogeny of genetic elements linked to diverse human diseases. In acute myeloid leukemia, chromatin accessibility reveals distinctive regulatory evolution in pre-leukemic HSCs (pHSCs), leukemia stem cells, and leukemic blasts. These leukemic cells demonstrate unique lineage infidelity, confirmed by single cell regulomes. We further show that pHSCs have a competitive advantage that is conferred by reduced chromatin accessibility at HOXA9 targets and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. Thus, regulome dynamics can provide diverse insights into human hematopoietic development and disease. ATAC-seq profiles of hematopoietic and leukemic cell types, across 13 normal hematopoietic cell types and 3 acute myeloid leukemia cell types. The complete data set contains a total of 132 samples.
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Project description:Methylation of histone 3 on lysine 79 (H3K79) is broadly associated with active gene expression in eukaryotes, and the H3K79 methyltransferase DOT1L is indispensable for specific leukemia subtypes like those with MLL-translocations. We found that suppression of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 rescued MLL-AF9 leukemia cells from their dependence on DOT1L. We show that upon DOT1L inhibition, SIRT1 is required for the acquisition of a repressive chromatin state consistent with facultative heterochromatin around MLL-AF9 target genes in leukemia and other genes possess an H3K79me2(hi), H3K9ac(hi), H3K9me2(low) histone modification profile in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Examination of histone modifications and a chromatin modifier with and without drug treatment and RNA interference.
Project description:Nrf2 is the key transcription factor regulating the antioxidant response which is crucial for cytoprotection against extracellular stresses. Numerous in vivo studies indicate that Nrf2 plays a protective role in anti-inflammatory response. 3-(3-Pyridylmethylidene)-2-indolinone (PMID) is a synthesized derivative of 2-indolinone compounds. Our previous study suggested that PMID induces the activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway, then protecting against oxidative stress-mediated cell death. However, little is known regarding the anti-inflammatory properties of PMID in severe inflammatory phenotypes. In the present study we determined if PMID treatment protects mice from dextran sodium sulphate- (DSS-) induced colitis. The result suggests that treatment with PMID prior to colitis induction significantly reduced body weight loss, shortened colon length, and decreased disease activity index compared to control mice. Histopathological analysis of the colon revealed attenuated inflammation in PMID pretreated animals. The levels of inflammatory markers in colon tissue and serum were reduced associated with inhibition of NF-?B activation. The expression levels of Nrf2-dependent genes such as HO-1, NQO1, and Nrf2 were increased in PMID pretreated mice. However, PMID pretreatment did not prevent DSS-induced colitis in Nrf2 knockout mice. These data indicate that PMID pretreatment in mice confers protection against DSS-induced colitis in Nrf2-dependent manner, suggesting a potential role of PMID in anti-inflammatory response.
Project description:In mammals, extensive chromatin reorganization is essential for reprogramming terminally committed gametes to a totipotent state during preimplantation development. However, the global chromatin landscape and its dynamics in this period remain unexplored. Here we report a genome-wide map of accessible chromatin in mouse preimplantation embryos using an improved assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) approach with CRISPR/Cas9-assisted mitochondrial DNA depletion. We show that despite extensive parental asymmetry in DNA methylomes, the chromatin accessibility between the parental genomes is globally comparable after major zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Accessible chromatin in early embryos is widely shaped by transposable elements and overlaps extensively with putative cis-regulatory sequences. Unexpectedly, accessible chromatin is also found near the transcription end sites of active genes. By integrating the maps of cis-regulatory elements and single-cell transcriptomes, we construct the regulatory network of early development, which helps to identify the key modulators for lineage specification. Finally, we find that the activities of cis-regulatory elements and their associated open chromatin diminished before major ZGA. Surprisingly, we observed many loci showing non-canonical, large open chromatin domains over the entire transcribed units in minor ZGA, supporting the presence of an unusually permissive chromatin state. Together, these data reveal a unique spatiotemporal chromatin configuration that accompanies early mammalian development. Mouse preimplantation embryos were obtained from crosses of C57BL/6N and DBA/2N. ATAC-seq was performed in these embryos at various stages in preimplantation development.
Project description:Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a myocardial disorder that can result in progressive heart failure and arrhythmias, is defined by ventricular chamber enlargement and dilatation, and systolic dysfunction. To decipher the basis for the cardiac pathology in titin-mutated patients, we investigated the hypothesis that induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC)- derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) generated from patients, recapitulate the disease phenotype.Our findings show that the mutated cardiomyocytes from DCM patients recapitulate abnormalities of the inherited cardiomyopathies.
Project description:Recent reports have proposed a new paradigm for obtaining mature somatic cell types from fibroblasts without going through a pluripotent state, by briefly expressing canonical iPSC reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (abbreviated as OSKM), in cells expanded in lineage differentiation promoting conditions. Here we apply genetic lineage tracing for endogenous Nanog, Oct4 and X chromosome reactivation during OSKM induced trans-differentiation, as these molecular events mark final stages for acquisition of induced pluripotency. Remarkably, the vast majority of reprogrammed cardiomyocytes or neural stem cells derived from mouse fibroblasts via OSKM mediated trans-differentiation were attained after transient acquisition of pluripotency, and followed by rapid differentiation. Our findings underscore a molecular and functional coupling between inducing pluripotency and obtaining “trans-differentiated” somatic cells via OSKM induction, and have implications on defining molecular trajectories assumed during different cell reprogramming methods. poly RNA-Seq and Chromatin accesibility (ATAC-seq) were measured during conversion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to neural stem cells using OSKM trans-differentiation method, as well as in mouse emrbyonic fibroblasts, iPSCs and mouse ESCs.
Project description:We performed ATAC-sequencing in LSK cells (Lin(neg)/c-Kit(+)/Sca-1(+)) from shRNA mice carrying an shRNA for either Renilla or Stag2. ATAC-sequencing control (Renilla) and Stag2 knockdown cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiac disease modelling using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) requires thorough insight into cardiac cell type differentiation processes. However, current methods to discriminate different cardiac cell types are mostly time-consuming, are costly and often provide imprecise phenotypic evaluation. DNA methylation plays a critical role during early heart development and cardiac cellular specification. We therefore investigated the DNA methylation pattern in different cardiac tissues to identify CpG loci for further cardiac cell type characterization. RESULTS:An array-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips led to the identification of 168 differentially methylated CpG loci in atrial and ventricular human heart tissue samples (n = 49) from different patients with congenital heart defects (CHD). Systematic evaluation of atrial-ventricular DNA methylation pattern in cardiac tissues in an independent sample cohort of non-failing donor hearts and cardiac patients using bisulfite pyrosequencing helped us to define a subset of 16 differentially methylated CpG loci enabling precise characterization of human atrial and ventricular cardiac tissue samples. This defined set of reproducible cardiac tissue-specific DNA methylation sites allowed us to consistently detect the cellular identity of hiPSC-CM subtypes. CONCLUSION:Testing DNA methylation of only a small set of defined CpG sites thus makes it possible to distinguish atrial and ventricular cardiac tissues and cardiac atrial and ventricular subtypes of hiPSC-CMs. This method represents a rapid and reliable system for phenotypic characterization of in vitro-generated cardiomyocytes and opens new opportunities for cardiovascular research and patient-specific therapy.