ChIP-seq of histone marks (H3K27me1, H3K27me3, H3K9me2) and of the H2A.W histone variant in Arabidopsis pol2a mutants.
ABSTRACT: DNA replication requires the faithful propagation of both genetic and epigenetic information. There is evidence that DNA polymerases play a role in transcriptional silencing, but the extent of their contribution and how it relates to heterochromatin maintenance is unclear. Analyzing a new hypomorphic pol2a mutant allele, we find that POL2A, the catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase epsilon, maintains heterochromatin silencing and nuclear organization. We also found that POL2A inhibits DNA methylation. Using ChIP-seq in wild-type and pol2a mutants, we analyzed how this related to changes in heterochromatic histone modifications (H3K27me1, H3K27me3, H3K9me2) and H2A.W heterochromatic histone variant.
Project description:Histone variants play crucial roles in gene expression, genome integrity and chromosome segregation. However, to what extent histone variants control chromatin architecture remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized histone variant H2A.W plays a crucial role in condensation of heterochromatin. Genome-wide profiling of all four types of H2A variants in Arabidopsis shows that H2A.W specifically associates with heterochromatin. H2A.W recruitment is independent of heterochromatic marks H3K9me2 and DNA methylation. Genetic interactions show that H2A.W acts in synergy with CMT3 mediated methylation to maintain genome integrity. In vitro, H2A.W enhances chromatin condensation through a higher propensity to make fiber-to-fiber interactions via its conserved C-terminal motif. In vivo, elimination of H2A.W causes decondensation of heterochromatin and conversely, ectopic expression of H2A.W promotes heterochromatin condensation. These results demonstrate that H2A.W plays critical roles in heterochromatin by promoting higher order chromatin condensation. Since similar H2A.W C-terminal motifs are present in other variant found in mammals and other organisms our findings impact our understanding of heterochromatin condensation in a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms. Two mRNA-seq samples, two bisulfite-seq samples, six ChIP-seq samples.
Project description:Heterochromatin contains repressively modified histones and replicates late in S phase of the cell cycle. Besides the shortage in replication origins, little is known about replication timing regulation in silenced regions. In Drosophila polytene cells, late replication results in under-replication and decreased DNA copy number in heterochromatic regions of the genome. The Suppressor of Under-replication (SUUR) protein controls this feature – in its absence the DNA polytenization level in most silenced regions is restored, however the repressive histone marks are lost. We hypothesized that SUUR regulates the re-establishment of repressive histone pattern during replication which results in delayed replication completion of heterochromatin. Measuring DNA copy number in mutants with disrupted repressive pathways, we found that under-replication is directly linked to repressive histone marks supply. DamID-seq and ChIP-seq experiments revealed that SuUR mutation does not affect the establishment of heterochromatin domains. Here, we identified a novel SUUR protein interaction (CG12018) that supports SUUR association with replication complex. SUUR loads onto replication forks shortly after the origin firing and participates in chromatin maintenance rather than its establishment. Thus, our findings provide comprehensive evidence that late replication in Drosophila is caused by the time-consuming process of replication-coupled repressive chromatin renewal. Examination of H3K27me3 histone modification in 3 cell types in presence or absence of SuUR mutation.
Project description:Eukaryotic DNA methylation is found in silent transposable elements and active genes. Nucleosome remodelers of the DDM1/Lsh family are thought to be specifically required to maintain transposon methylation, but the reason for this is unknown. Here, we find that a chromatin gradient that extends from the most heterochromatic transposons to euchromatic genes determines the requirement of DDM1 for methylation maintenance in all sequence contexts. We also show that small RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is inhibited by heterochromatin and absolutely requires the nucleosome remodeler DRD1. DDM1 and RdDM independently mediate nearly all transposon methylation, which is catalyzed by the methyltransferases MET1 (CG), CMT3 (CHG), DRM2 (CHH) and CMT2 (CHH), and collaborate to repress transposition and regulate the methylation and expression of genes. Our results indicate that the Arabidopsis genome is defined by a heterochromatic continuum that governs the access of DNA methyltransferases and potentially all DNA binding proteins. Examination of DNA methylation, transcription and nucleosomes in Arabidopsis wild-type and/or ddm1, RdDM and DNA methylase mutants.
Project description:Lamins are components of the peripheral nuclear lamina and interact with heterochromatic genomic regions, termed lamina-associated domains (LADs). In contrast to lamin B1, lamin A/C also localizes throughout the nucleus, where it associates with the chromatin-binding protein lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2alpha. Here we show lamin A/C also interacts with euchromatin, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses of eu- and heterochromatin-enriched samples. By way of contrast, lamin B1 was only found associated with heterochromatin. Euchromatic regions occupied by lamin A/C overlap with those bound by LAP2alpha, the depletion of which shifts binding of lamin A/C towards more heterochromatic regions. These alterations in lamin A/C chromatin interaction affect epigenetic histone marks in euchromatin without significantly affecting gene expression, while loss of lamin A/C in heterochromatic regions increased gene expression. Our data show a novel role of nucleoplasmic lamin A/C and LAP2alpha in regulating euchromatin. Examination of LaminA, LaminB and Lap2a DNA binding in Lap2alpha +/+ and Lap2a -/- cells and according changes in Histone modifications and gene expression
Project description:Transdifferentiation of BLaER1 B cell into macrophages is an appropriate model to understand how chromatin behaves along a dynamic process. With this purpose, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments of two histone modifications associated to active enhancer activity along 4 time points of BLaER1 transdifferentiation.
Project description:In the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, de novo heterochromatin body formation is accompanied by programmed DNA elimination. We previously reported that dephosphorylation of the HP1-like protein Pdd1p is required for the formation of heterochromatin bodies during the process of programmed DNA elimination in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena. Here, we show that the heterochromatin body component Jub4p is required for Pdd1p phosphorylation, heterochromatin body formation and DNA elimination. Moreover, our analyses of unphosphorylatable Pdd1p mutants demonstrate that Pdd1p phosphorylation is required for heterochromatin body formation and DNA elimination, while it is dispensable for local heterochromatin assembly. Therefore, both phosphorylation and the following dephosphorylation of Pdd1p are necessary to facilitate the formation of heterochromatin bodies. We suggest that Jub4p-mediated phosphorylation of Pdd1p creates a chromatin environment that is a prerequisite for subsequent heterochromatin body assembly and DNA elimination. New macronuclei (MACs) of exconjugants were isolated from wild-type and various mutant cells at 12 hpm (hours post-mixing), sheared chromatin was immunoprecipitated andprecipitated DNA was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing
Project description:Heterochromatic position effect variegation (PEV) is the epigenetic disruption of genes expression near the new-formed eu-heterochromatic border. We characterized the inversion In(2)A4, demonstrating cis-acting PEV as well as trans-inactivation of the reporter transgenes on the opposite normal chromosome in combination with the inversion. Euchromatic breakpoint of In(2)A4 inversion was localized at 105 bp region (chr2L:21182214-21182318) of the second exon of the Mcm10 gene, the heterochromatic breakpoint is located at the block of dodecasatellite in 2L pericentromeric heterochromatin. In order to check the effects of heterochromatin on neighbor euchromatic genes and estimate the distance of inactivation spreading, we performed RNA-seq analysis of genes expression in larvae and adults females of genotypes A12/A12 (control) and In(2)A4/In(2)A4. Cis-influence of heterochromatin in the inversion causes not only repression, but also activation of genes, and the effects of heterochromatin are different at different developmental stages. Cis-actions affect only a few genes located near the heterochromatin Comparison of genes expression in wild type and demonstrating PEV larvae and adults in two repeats each
Project description:whole genome analysis of RNA pol II and histone H3 in WT and Spt6-depleted cells using a tetracycline regulated ts degron mutant, spt6-td. ChIP-seq of histone H3and pol II in budding yeast (W303 background)
Project description:The histone lysine demethylase protein, KDM2B, associates with the PCGF1/PRC1 complex and binds to non-methylated DNA through its ZF-CxxC domain, providing a possible molecular link between CpG island elements and polycomb nucleation (Farcas et al., 2012, Wu et al., 2013). Here, a novel genetic system was designed in which PCGF1/PRC1 targeting could be disrupted in vivo through the ablation of KDM2B-mediated DNA binding. To ablate PCGF1/PRC1 targeting, an exon that encodes most of the KDM2B ZF-CxxC domain and is shared by both the long and short form of the protein was flanked by loxP sites (Kdm2bfl/fl). Homozygous mouse ES cell lines were derived that also stably express a tamoxifen inducible form of CRE-recombinase. CRE induced deletion of the ZF-CxxC domain by the addition of tamoxifen yields KDM2B long and short form proteins that are incapable of binding to CpG island DNA but still remain associated with the PCGF1/PRC1 variant complex. We then assessed genome-wide occupancy of the PRC1 component RING1B and the PRC2 component SUZ12 to examine the impact of losing KDM2B-dependent targeting of polycomb. KDM2Bfl/fl ES cells were treated with 800µM tamoxifen for 72hours and compared to untreated control cells by ChIP-seq for KDM2B, RING1B and SUZ12, and RNA-seq.
Project description:In the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, de novo heterochromatin body formation is accompanied by programmed DNA elimination. We previously reported that dephosphorylation of the HP1-like protein Pdd1p is required for the formation of heterochromatin bodies during the process of programmed DNA elimination in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena. Here, we show that the heterochromatin body component Jub4p is required for Pdd1p phosphorylation, heterochromatin body formation and DNA elimination. Moreover, our analyses of unphosphorylatable Pdd1p mutants demonstrate that Pdd1p phosphorylation is required for heterochromatin body formation and DNA elimination, while it is dispensable for local heterochromatin assembly. Therefore, both phosphorylation and the following dephosphorylation of Pdd1p are necessary to facilitate the formation of heterochromatin bodies. We suggest that Jub4p-mediated phosphorylation of Pdd1p creates a chromatin environment that is a prerequisite for subsequent heterochromatin body assembly and DNA elimination. 26 to 32-nt small RNAs from various mutants were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing