ABSTRACT: Acute graft versus host disease is a serious condition caused by allo-reactive donor CD4+ T cells from allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To understand the developmental relationships between T-helper states in mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN), TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells specific for a single allo-peptide (TEa cells) from mice were recovered at Days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 from mLN, and Day 5 from the gut and underwent processing to generate scRNA-seq dataset. TEa cells were also recovered at Day 5 from mLN and were either treated with and without IEL-isolation pre-digestion buffer as controls.
Project description:The RNA-Seq was used to analyze the expression profiling of genes in different ablescent stages of 'Anji Baicha' Examination of three tea leaf samples in yellow stage, white stage and green stage
Project description:In this study, it is noticeable that 32 tea-specific miRNAs were confirmed on the base of genome survey, using deep sequencing and microarray hybridization, and many miRNAs might associate with secondary metabolites synthesis. Leaves, buds and roots were collected
Project description:In field conditions, tea plants are often exposed to drought stress, which has profound effects on the growth and development of tea plants. However, most studies on tea plants in response to drought stress focused on single gene or protein expression, and transcriptome or proteome profiles, the impact of drought stress on ubiquitination in proteins remains unearthed. We performed a global profile of ubiquitinated (Kub) proteins in tea leaves under drought stress. In total, 1,409 lysine Kub sites in 781 proteins were identified, of which 14 sites in 12 proteins were up-regulated and 123 sites in 91 proteins were down-regulated compared with drought and control. Furthermore, we analyzed the Kub proteins related to ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, catechins biosynthesis, and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism in tea leaves under drought stress. The results indicated that many Kub proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis played important roles in protein degradation. Several Kub proteins related to catechins biosynthesis were positively correlated with each other because of their co-expression and co-localization. Our study preliminarily revealed the global profiling of Kub proteins in metabolic pathways and provided an important resource for further study on the functions of Kub proteins in tea plants under drought stress.
Project description:Background: Lysine crotonylation (Kcr), as a novel evolutionarily conserved type of PTM, is ubiquitous and essential in cell biology. However, its functions in tea plant, an important beverage crop, are largely unknown. Our study firstly attempted to describe Kcr proteins in tea leaves under NH4+ deficiency/resupply, and provided significant insights into exploring the physiological role of Kcr in plants for N utilization. Results: We performed the global analysis of crotonylome in tea plants under NH4+ deficiency/resupply using high-resolution LC-MS/MS coupled with highly sensitive immune-antibody. A total of 2288 kcr sites on 971 proteins were identified, of which contained in 15 types of Kcr motifs. Most of Kcr proteins were located in chloroplast and cytoplasm. 120 and 151 Kcr proteins were significantly changed at 3 hours and 3days of NH4+ resupply, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that differentially expressed Kcr proteins participated in diverse biological processes such as photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism, suggesting Kcr plays important roles in these processes. Interestingly, a large number of enzymes were crotonylated, and the activity and Kcr level of these enzymes changed significantly after NH4+ resupply, indicating a potential function of Kcr in the regulation of enzyme activities. Moreover, the protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that the diverse interactions of identified Kcr proteins mainly involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism and ribosome. Conclusions: The results suggested that lysine crotonylated proteins might play regulating roles in metabolic process in tea leaves under NH4+ deficiency/resupply. The critical regulatory roles mainly involved in diverse aspects of primary metabolic processes, especially in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism. The provided data may serve as important resources for exploring the physiological, biochemical, and genetic role of lysine crotonylation in tea plants.
Project description:This study tested the anti-inflammatory potential of a green tea extract rich in polyphenols (GrTP) in the colon of the multi-drug resistance targeted mutation (Mdr1a-/-) mouse model of IBD. A colonic histological injury score was determined for each mouse to establish the effect of GrTP on inflammation. Insights into mechanisms responsible for changes in inflammation were gained using transcriptome (microarray) and proteome (2-D gel electrophoresis and LCMS protein identification) analyses. A total of 24 male Mdr1a-/- mice purchased from Taconic (Hudson, NY, USA) at 4-5 weeks of age were used for this study. 12 mice were randomly assigned to each of two different dietary groups: control (AIN-76A powdered diet), or GrTP (AIN-76A + 0.6% green tea polyphenol). At 21 and 24 weeks of age, mice were euthanized and colon samples taken for histological and microarray analyses. The total histology score (HIS) in the colon was determined according to previously described criteria. Total RNA was isolated using TRIzol reagent. Colon RNA from four Mdr1a-/- mice on the GrTP diet (with low HIS) was compared with colon RNA from four Mdr1a-/- mice on the AIN-76A diet (with high HIS). All individual RNA samples were hybridized against a common reference RNA on separate slides. The reference RNA was prepared using equimolar RNA extracts from small intestine, colon, kidney and liver of normal healthy growing Swiss mice plus RNA extracts from Swiss mouse fetuses.
Project description:Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of adult-onset dementia with severe intellectual deterioration and is characterised by the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and the presence of hyperphosphorylated microtubule- associated protein, tau. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) – a polyphenolic catechin found in green tea leaves, not only acts as a proteasome inhibitor, it is also involved in neuroprotection. A total of 7 RNA samples were analyzed. Cultured murine primary cortical neurons were treated with 1uM EGCG for 24h (n=3) in addition to the vehicle control (n=4).
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25-35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities. In murine allo-HSCT recipients treated with EGCG, we found significantly reduced GVHD scores, reduced target organ GVHD and improved survival. EGCG treated allo-HSCT recipients had significantly higher numbers of regulatory T cells in GVHD target organs and in the blood. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in diminished oxidative stress indicated by significant changes of glutathione blood levels as well as glutathione peroxidase in the colon. In summary, our study provides novel evidence demonstrating that EGCG ameliorates lethal GVHD and reduces GVHD-related target organ damage. Possible mechanisms are increased regulatory T cell numbers and reduced oxidative stress.
Project description:Probiotic bacteria may render mice resistant to the development of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. This study aimed to identify underlying mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria may influence intestinal immune homeostasis in non-inflammatory conditions. To this end, we studied the effect of short term (3 days) and long term (28 days) oral administration of VSL#3, a mixture of 8 probiotic bacteria, to healthy BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, with dominant humoral or cellular immunity, respectively. Long-term treatment with VSL#3 resulted in an increase of B cells and a decrease of CD4+ T cells in the Peyer’s patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of both mouse strains, compared to untreated mice. However, genome wide gene expression profiling using micro-arrays revealed that prolonged administration of VSL#3 to BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice was associated with host-specific modulation of gene expression in colon and small intestine. Whereas VSL#3 treatment resulted in down-regulation of Il13 and Epx, and up-regulation of Il12rb1, Ccr5, Cxcr3 and Cxcl10 in BALB/c mice, such effects were not observed in C57BL/6 mice. In BALB/c mice, a 2-fold increase in CD103+ CD11c+ dendritic cells was found both in PP and in MLN, 18 hours after the first treatment with VSL#3. Prolonged treatment with VSL#3 was associated with increased numbers of Th17 cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the MLN of these mice. In conclusion, these experiments in healthy mice show that probiotic bacteria may alter the immunological phenotype of the host; the nature of these effects is dependent on mouse strain. In conclusion, these experiments in healthy mice show that probiotic bacteria may alter the immunological phenotype of the host; the nature of these effects is dependent on mouse strain. 40 samples (4 experimental groups, 5 biological replicates), performed in two inbred mice strains
Project description:In two disparate models, we show that rapid revaccination following sublethal gamma radiation exposure rescues memory CD8+ T cell Responses. To investigate the mechanism of rescue we performed RNA microarray analyses to identify whether there was a genetic “signature” of rescue. mRNA was obtained from whole spleens 6 hrs after revaccination with LM-DActA at D1 and D4 PI for RNA microarray analysis
Project description:Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Treg cells also suppress a variety of other immune responses, including anti-tumor and alloimmune responses. We have previously reported that tumor-activated Treg cells express granzyme B and that granzyme B is important for Treg cell-mediated suppression of anti-tumor immune responses (GSE13409). Here, we report that allogeneic mismatch also induces the expression of granzyme B. Granzyme B-deficient mice challenged with fully mismatched allogeneic P815 mastocytoma cells have markedly improved survival compared to WT and other granzyme- or perforin-deficient mice, suggesting an immunoregulatory role for granzyme B in this setting. Treg cells harvested from the tumor environment of P815-challenged mice express granzyme B. Treg cells also express granzyme B in vitro during mixed lymphocyte reactions and in vivo in a mouse model of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, in contrast to findings from our previously published tumor model, granzyme B is not required for the suppression of effector T cell (Teff) proliferation in in vitro Treg suppression assays stimulated by either Concanavalin A or allogeneic antigen presenting cells. Additionally, in an ex vivo assay, sort-purified in vivo-activated CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells from mice with active GVHD -- under conditions known to induce granzyme B expression in Treg cells -- suppressed Teff cell proliferation in a granzyme B-independent manner. Adoptive transfer of naive granzyme B-deficient CD4+CD25+ Treg cells into a mouse model of GVHD rescued hosts from lethatlity equivalently to naive wild-type Treg cells. Serum analysis of GVHD-associated cytokine production in these recipients also demonstrated that Treg cells suppressed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, GM-CSF, and IFN-gamma in a granzyme B-independent manner. In order to determine whether the context in which Treg cells are activated alters the intrinsic properties of Treg cells, we used Foxp3 reporter mice to obtain gene expression profiles of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells purifed from naive resting spleens, spleens from mice with acute GVHD, and from ascites fluid of mice challenged intraperitoneally with allogeneic P815 tumor cells. Unsupervised analyses revealed distinct activation signatures of Treg cells among the 3 experimental groups. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that granzyme B is not required for Treg cell-mediated suppression of GVHD, which is in contrast to what we have previously reported for Treg cell function in the setting of tumor challenge. Cell intrinsic differences could partially account for these differential phenotypes. These data also suggest the therapeutic potential of targeting specific Treg cell suppressive functions in order to segregate GVHD and graft-versus-tumor effector functions. Experiment Overall Design: Six replicates of Naive CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were purified from resting spleens, five replicates of allogeneic tumor-activated Treg cells and three samples of GVHD-activated Treg cells. Experiment Overall Design: Naive reps 1-3 are controls for the GVHD-activated samples. Experiment Overall Design: Naive reps 4-6 are controls for the Allogeneic tumor-activated samples.