Project description:To obtain an overview of the antler tip gene expression profile during the ossification stage, a cDNA sample was prepared from antler tip and sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform.
Project description:To obtain an overview of the Oviductus Ranae gene expression profile during initial growing period, a cDNA sample was prepared from Oviductus Ranae and sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform
Project description:To obtain an overview of the antler tip gene expression profile during rapid growth period, a cDNA sample was prepared from antler tip and sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform.
Project description:Well-controlled development leads to uniform body size and a better growth rate; therefore, the ability to determine the growth rate of frogs and their period of sexual maturity is essential for producing healthy, high-quality descendant frogs. To establish a working model that can best predict the growth performance of frogs, the present study examined the growth of one-year-old and two-year-old brown frogs (Rana dybowskii) from metamorphosis to hibernation (18 weeks) and out-hibernation to hibernation (20 weeks) under the same environmental conditions. Brown frog growth was studied and mathematically modelled using various nonlinear, linear, and polynomial functions. The model input values were statistically evaluated using parameters such as the Akaike's information criterion. The body weight/size ratio (Kwl) and Fulton's condition factor (K) were used to compare the weight and size of groups of frogs during the growth period. The results showed that the third- and fourth-order polynomial models provided the most consistent predictions of body weight for age 1 and age 2 brown frogs, respectively. Both the Gompertz and third-order polynomial models yielded similarly adequate results for the body size of age 1 brown frogs, while the Janoschek model produced a similarly adequate result for the body size of age 2 brown frogs. The Brody and Janoschek models yielded the highest and lowest estimates of asymptotic weight, respectively, for the body weights of all frogs. The Kwl value of all frogs increased from 0.40 to 3.18. The K value of age 1 frogs decreased from 23.81 to 9.45 in the first four weeks. The K value of age 2 frogs remained close to 10. Graphically, a sigmoidal trend was observed for body weight and body size with increasing age. The results of this study will be useful not only for amphibian research but also for frog farming management strategies and decisions.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to obtain tissue specimens derived from patients with melanoma to generate research tools to advance our understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and therapeutics of melanoma. Briefly, tissue was obtained from metastatic lesions and used to generate clonal primary cell lines from melanoma cells and fibroblasts from the tumor microenvironment. RNA was extracted from low passage cell lines using Trizol reagent. cDNA libraries were prepared using the TruSeq mRNA sample preparation kit, v2 (Illumina) and sequenced on the HiSeq 2000 platform (Illumina). The submitted files are bam files that contain both unaligned and aligned reads (human genome, build hg19).
Project description:During six months of annual hibernation, the brown bear undergoes unique physiological changes to adapt to decreased metabolic rate. We compared cardiac structural and functional measures of hibernating and active bears using comprehensive echocardiography. We performed echocardiography on 13 subadult free-ranging, anaesthetised Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) during late hibernation and in early summer. Mean heart rate was 26 beats per minute (standard deviation (SD): 8) during hibernation vs 71 (SD: 14) during active state. All left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic measures were decreased during hibernation: mean ejection fraction: 44.2% (SD: 6.0) active state vs 34.0 (SD: 8.1) hibernation, P?=?0.001; global longitudinal strain: -11.2% (SD: 2.0) vs -8.8 (SD: 3.3), P?=?0.03; global longitudinal strain rate: -0.82 (SD: 0.15) vs -0.41 (SD: 0.18), P?<?0.001; septal e': 9.8?cm/s (SD: 1.8) vs 5.2 (SD: 2.7), P?<?0.001. In general, measures of total myocardial motion (ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain) were decreased to a lesser extent than measures of myocardial velocities. In the hibernating brown bear, cardiac adaptation included decreased functional measures, primarily measures of myocardial velocities, but was not associated with cardiac atrophy. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations could provide pathophysiological insight of human pathological conditions such as heart failure.
Project description:Important evolutionary and ecological consequences arise from the ability of female turtles to store viable spermatozoa for an extended period. Although previous morphological studies have observed the localization of spermatozoa in Pelodiscus sinensis oviduct, no systematic study on the identification of genes that are involved in long-term sperm storage has been performed. In this study, the oviduct of P. sinensis at different phases (reproductive and hibernation seasons) was prepared for RNA-Seq and gene expression profiling. In total, 2,662 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 1,224 up- and 1,438 down-regulated genes were identified from two cDNA libraries. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that many genes were predominantly involved in the immune response, apoptosis pathway and regulation of autophagy. RT-qPCR, ELISA, western blot and IHC analyses showed that the expression profiles of mRNA and protein in selected DEGs were in consistent with results from RNA-Seq analysis. Remarkably, TUNEL analysis revealed the reduced number of apoptotic cells during sperm storage. IHC and TEM analyses found that autophagy occurred in the oviduct epithelial cells, where the spermatozoa were closely attached. The outcomes of this study provide fundamental insights into the complex sperm storage regulatory process and facilitate elucidating the mechanism of sperm storage in P. sinensis.
Project description:Physical inactivity reduces mechanical load on the skeleton, which leads to losses of bone mass and strength in non-hibernating mammalian species. Although bears are largely inactive during hibernation, they show no loss in bone mass and strength. To obtain insight into molecular mechanisms preventing disuse bone loss, we conducted a large-scale screen of transcriptional changes in trabecular bone comparing winter hibernating and summer non-hibernating black bears using a custom 12,800 probe cDNA microarray. A total of 241 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01 and fold change >1.4) in the ilium bone of bears between winter and summer. The Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed an elevated proportion in hibernating bears of overexpressed genes in six functional sets of genes involved in anabolic processes of tissue morphogenesis and development including skeletal development, cartilage development, and bone biosynthesis. Apoptosis genes demonstrated a tendency for downregulation during hibernation. No coordinated directional changes were detected for genes involved in bone resorption, although some genes responsible for osteoclast formation and differentiation (Ostf1, Rab9a, and c-Fos) were significantly underexpressed in bone of hibernating bears. Elevated expression of multiple anabolic genes without induction of bone resorption genes, and the down regulation of apoptosis-related genes, likely contribute to the adaptive mechanism that preserves bone mass and structure through prolonged periods of immobility during hibernation.
Project description:White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease responsible for decimating many bat populations in North America. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the psychrophilic fungus responsible for WNS, prospers in the winter habitat of many hibernating bat species. The immune response that Pd elicits in bats is not yet fully understood; antibodies are produced in response to infection by Pd, but they may not be protective and indeed may be harmful. To understand how bats respond to infection during hibernation, we studied the effect of Pd inoculation on the survival and gene expression of captive hibernating Myotis lucifugus with varying pre-hibernation antifungal antibody titres. We investigated gene expression through the transcription of selected cytokine genes (Il6, Il17a, Il1b, Il4 and Ifng) associated with inflammatory, Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune responses in wing tissue and lymph nodes. We found no difference in survival between bats with low and high anti-Pd titres, although anti-Pd antibody production during hibernation differed significantly between infected and uninfected bats. Transcription of Il6 and Il17a was higher in the lymph nodes of infected bats compared with uninfected bats. Increased transcription of these cytokines in the lymph node suggests that a pro-inflammatory immune response to WNS is not restricted to infected tissues and occurs during hibernation. The resulting Th17 response may be protective in euthermic bats, but because it may disrupt torpor, it could be detrimental during hibernation.
Project description:Background:In mammals, the hibernating state is characterized by biochemical adjustments, which include metabolic rate depression and a shift in the primary fuel oxidized from carbohydrates to lipids. A number of studies of hibernating species report an upregulation of the levels and/or activity of lipid oxidizing enzymes in muscles during torpor, with a concomitant downregulation for glycolytic enzymes. However, other studies provide contrasting data about the regulation of fuel utilization in skeletal muscles during hibernation. Bears hibernate with only moderate hypothermia but with a drop in metabolic rate down to ~?25% of basal metabolism. To gain insights into how fuel metabolism is regulated in hibernating bear skeletal muscles, we examined the vastus lateralis proteome and other changes elicited in brown bears during hibernation. Results:We show that bear muscle metabolic reorganization is in line with a suppression of ATP turnover. Regulation of muscle enzyme expression and activity, as well as of circulating metabolite profiles, highlighted a preference for lipid substrates during hibernation, although the data suggested that muscular lipid oxidation levels decreased due to metabolic rate depression. Our data also supported maintenance of muscle glycolysis that could be fuelled from liver gluconeogenesis and mobilization of muscle glycogen stores. During hibernation, our data also suggest that carbohydrate metabolism in bear muscle, as well as protein sparing, could be controlled, in part, by actions of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids like docosahexaenoic acid. Conclusions:Our work shows that molecular mechanisms in hibernating bear skeletal muscle, which appear consistent with a hypometabolic state, likely contribute to energy and protein savings. Maintenance of glycolysis could help to sustain muscle functionality for situations such as an unexpected exit from hibernation that would require a rapid increase in ATP production for muscle contraction. The molecular data we report here for skeletal muscles of bears hibernating at near normal body temperature represent a signature of muscle preservation despite atrophying conditions.