Project description:The immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment constitutes a significant hurdle to immune checkpoint inhibitors response. Both soluble factors and specialised immune cells such as regulatory T cells (TReg) are key components of active intratumoural immunosuppression. Previous studies have shown that Inducible Co-Stimulatory receptor (ICOS) can be highly expressed in the tumour microenvironment, especially on immunosuppressive TReg, suggesting that it represents a relevant target for preferential depletion of these cells. Here, we performed immune profiling of samples from paired tumour and peripheral blood of 5 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found Icos mRNA expression in NSCLC samples was higher in TRegs than in other T cell subsets and higher in the TME than in the periphery with the expression pattern in both compartments following the general trend of: TReg > CD4non-TReg > CD8 > Other.
Project description:Rituximab (RTX) is widely used as a first-line therapeutic strategy for patients affected by immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). However, a large proportion of patients relapse after successful treatment. The present NGS assay was done to help find the cause for this relapse on the immune repertoire level. Therefore, we performed antibody repertoire sequencing for three RTX relapse patients with subsequent mutation and clonal analysis, as well as for two patients with ongoing ITP and two healthy donors (HD) with subsequent mutation analysis.
Project description:Biological replicates of liver spheroids derived from primary hepatocytes were treated with IFNa2 and/or baricitinib for 24 h and subsequently infected with Sars-CoV-2. The cells were harvested 48 h time after infection. Total RNA was extracted and sequenced with a strand-specific paired end RNA-seq protocol.
Project description:We sought to investigate the extent of genetic and antigen-driven predetermination of antibody repertoires throughout B-cell development (pre-B cells, naive B cells, plasma cells). To this end, we used (i) an inbred model organism (mouse, C57BL/6J) to quantify genetic predetermination and (ii) cohort-stratification (4 cohorts: 1 untreated, 3 antigen-immunized) to quantify antigen-driven predetermination. To ensure generalizability of our research, we additionally sequenced naive B cells from Balb/c and pet shop mice.
Project description:The human hepatoma-derived HuH-7 cell line and its derivatives (Huh7.5 and Huh7.5.1) have been widely used as a convenient experimental substitute for primary hepatocytes. In particular, these cell lines represent host cells suitable for propagating the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in vitro. The Huh7.5.1-8 cell line, a subline of Huh7.5.1, can propagate HCV more efficiently than its parental cells. To provide genomic information for cells' quality control, we performed whole-genome sequencing of HuH-7 and Huh7.5.1-8 and identified their characteristic genomic deletions, some of which are applicable to an in-house test for cell authentication. Among the genes related to HCV infection and replication, 53 genes were found to carry missense or loss-of-function mutations likely specific to the HuH-7 and/or Huh7.5.1-8. Eight genes, including DDX58 (RIG-I), BAX, EP300, and SPP1 (osteopontin), contained mutations observed only in Huh7.5.1-8 or mutations with higher frequency in Huh7.5.1-8. These mutations might be relevant to phenotypic differences between the two cell lines and may also serve as genetic markers to distinguish Huh7.5.1-8 cells from the ancestral HuH-7 cells.
Project description:A knockout cell library in Huh7.5.1 cells was generated by introducing a genome-scale CRISPR library (GeCKOv2, Addgene #1000000049) and subjected to hepatitis A virus infection (HM175/18f) to isolate virus-resistant mutant cells. Genomic DNA was isolated from the original and virus-selected mutant cell populations and abundance of guideRNA encoding sequences were measured by sequencing on an Illumina NextSeq (High Output).
Project description:Data of gene expression levels across individuals, cell types, and disease states is rapidly expanding, yet we have limited understanding of how expression levels impact cellular and organismal phenotypes. Here, we present a massively parallel system for assaying the effect of gene expression levels on cellular fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by systematically altering the expression level of each of ~100 endogenous genes at ~100 distinct expression levels spanning a 500-fold range at high resolution. Our results show that the relationship between expression levels and growth is gene- and environment-specific, with the specific relationship exhibited by each gene being highly informative on its function, stoichiometry within complexes, and interaction with other genes. Notably, in one of the two environmental conditions that we tested, we find that ~20% of the genes have expression levels where fitness is greater than that at wild-type expression levels, indicating that wild-type expression is not optimal for growth in that condition. We find that genes whose fitness is greatly affected by small changes in expression level tend to exhibit lower cell-to-cell variability in expression, suggesting that noise in gene expression is shaped in part by the relationship between expression and fitness. Overall, our study addresses a fundamental gap in our understanding of the functional significance of gene expression regulation and offers a powerful framework for evaluating the phenotypic effects of expression variation. 130 synthetic promoters were genomically integrated upstream of 96 endogenous yeast genes to span an expression range for each gene. Fitness as a function of the expression level of each gene was computed by a pooled growth competition assay.
Project description:The Flaviviridae is a family of enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. It contains many viruses that threaten human health, such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) of the genus Flavivirus as well as hepatitis C virus of the genus Hepacivirus. Cell culture systems highly permissive for the Flaviviridae viruses are very useful for their isolation, propagation, and diagnosis, an understanding of their biology, and the development of vaccines and antiviral agents. Previously, we isolated a human hepatoma HuH-7-derived cell clone, Huh7.5.1-8, which is highly permissive to hepatitis C virus infection. Here, we have characterized flavivirus infection in the Huh7.5.1-8 cell line by comparing with that in the African green monkey kidney-derived Vero cell line, which is permissive for a wide spectrum of viruses. Upon infection with JEV, Huh7.5.1-8 cells produced a higher amount of virus particles early in infection and were more susceptible to virus-induced cell death than Vero cells. Similar outcomes were obtained when the cells were infected with another flavivirus, YFV (17D-204 strain). Quantification of cellular and extracellular viral RNA revealed that high JEV production in Huh7.5.1-8 cells can be attributed to rapid viral replication kinetics and efficient virus release early in infection. In a plaque assay, Huh7.5.1-8 cells developed JEV plaques more rapidly than Vero cells. Although this was not the case with YFV plaques, Huh7.5.1-8 cells developed higher numbers of YFV plaques than Vero cells. Sequence analysis of cDNA encoding an antiviral RNA helicase, RIG-I, showed that Huh7.5.1-8 cells expressed not only a full-length RIG-I mRNA with a known dominant-negative missense mutation but also variants without the mutation. However, the latter mRNAs lacked exon 5/6-12, indicating functional loss of RIG-I in the cells. These characteristics of the Huh7.5.1-8 cell line are helpful for flavivirus detection, titration, and propagation.
Project description:Protein kinase R (PKR), a sensor of double-stranded RNA, plays an important role in the host response to viral infection. Hepatitis C genotype 2a virus (HCV2a) has been shown to induce PKR activation to suppress the translation of antiviral interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), suggesting that PKR inhibitor can be beneficial for treating chronically HCV-infected patients in conjunction with interferon alpha and ribavirin. However, in this study, we found that PKR inhibition using siRNA PKR, shRNA PKR or PKR inhibitor enhanced HCV 1a replication and rendered Huh7.5.1 cells more susceptible to HCV1a infection. Additionally, PKR silencing suppressed NF-kB activation and NF-kB mediated STAT1 phosphorylation in Huh7.5.1 cells and HCV1a persistently infected Huh7.5.1 cells (2HDD4). These effects were accompanied by a reduction of interferon beta response and thereby enhanced HCV1a replication in Huh7.5.1 cells. We conclude that host cells can employ PKR activation to restrict HCV1a replication through regulation of NF-kB expression.
Project description:Natural killer cells (NK cells) play an essential role in the immunological mechanism underlying chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Impairment of NK cell function facilitates persistent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which NK cell activity is suppressed in CHC is not completely understood. In this study, we focused on carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell-adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1). CEACAM1 is thought to suppress NK cell function. We examined the effect of CEACAM1 on NK cell function in CHC. We investigated the function of CEACAM1 in vitro using Huh7.5.1 cells and the HCV-Japanese fulminant hepatitis (JFH)-1 strain. We analyzed serum CEACAM1 level, NK cell function, and CEACAM1 messenger RNA (mRNA) level in human liver samples. Levels of CEACAM1 on the cell surface, CEACAM1 mRNA levels, and soluble CEACAM1 levels in supernatants were significantly higher in Huh7.5.1 cells infected with JFH-1 (Huh7.5.1/JFH-1 cells) than in Huh7.5.1 cells. Significantly higher NK cell cytotoxicity was observed toward K562 cells after coculture with CEACAM1 knockout Huh7.5.1/JFH-1 cells than after coculture with Huh7.5.1/JFH-1 cells. CEACAM1 expression was induced by the HCV E2 glycoprotein in HCV infection. Significantly higher serum CEACAM1 levels were detected in patients with CHC compared with healthy subjects and patients who achieved sustained virological responses. The expression of CD107a on NK cells from patients with CHC was negatively correlated with serum CEACAM1 levels. Significantly higher levels of CEACAM1 mRNA were detected in HCV-infected livers compared with uninfected livers. Conclusion: CEACAM1 expression was induced in hepatocytes following HCV infection and decreased NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate a possible role for CEACAM1 in the pathogenesis of CHC and hepatocellular carcinoma progression.