Project description:A repeat expansion mutation in the C9orf72 gene is the most common known genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In this study, using multiple cell-based assay systems, we reveal both increased dipeptide repeat protein (DRP) toxicity in primary neurons and in differentiated neuronal cell lines. Using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy of cells treated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled DRPs, we confirm that poly-glycine-arginine (GR) and poly-proline-arginine (PR) DRPs entered cells more readily than poly-glycine-proline (GP) and poly-proline-alanine (PA) DRPs. Our findings suggest that the toxicity of C9-DRPs may be influenced by properties associated with differentiated and aging motor neurons. Further, our findings provide sensitive cell-based assay systems to test phenotypic rescue ability of potential interventions.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that is driven by lethal accumulation of lipid peroxides upon inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4). Deletion of the Gpx4 gene in mice revealed that neurons are sensitive to ferroptosis in vivo. However, few studies have been conducted on ferroptosis regulation in neurons. Here, we report that cells of a motor neuron-like cell line, NSC-34, became more sensitive to ferroptosis upon differentiation into a more motor neuron-like condition. We identified three factors that influence ferroptosis sensitivity under differentiation conditions: low serum antioxidants, decreased GPx4 protein amount, and inhibition of the transsulfuration pathway. Our results support the hypothesis that neurons, especially motor neurons, are sensitive to ferroptosis, and suggest that ferroptosis in a neuronal context should be investigated further to develop strategies for neuroprotection.
Project description:Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is a major contributor to motor neuron degeneration in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The spinal cord × Neuroblastoma hybrid cell line (NSC-34) is often used as a bona fide cellular model to investigate the physiopathological mechanisms of ALS. However, the physiological response of NSC-34 to glutamate remains insufficiently described. In this study, we evaluated the relevance of differentiated NSC-34 (NSC-34D) as an in vitro model for glutamate excitotoxicity studies. NSC-34D showed morphological and physiological properties of motor neuron-like cells and expressed glutamate receptor subunits GluA1-4, GluN1 and GluN2A/D. Despite these diverse characteristics, no specific effect of glutamate was observed on cultured NSC-34D survival and morphology, in contrast to what has been described in primary culture of motor neurons (MN). Moreover, a small non sustained increase in the concentration of intracellular calcium was observed in NSC-34D after exposure to glutamate compared to primary MN. Our findings, together with the inability to obtain cultures containing only differentiated cells, suggest that the motor neuron-like NSC-34 cell line is not a suitable in vitro model to study glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We suggest that the use of primary cultures of MN is more suitable than NSC-34 cell line to explore the pathogenesis of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity at the cellular level in ALS and other motor neuron diseases.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, is regarded as the most important neurotropic virus worldwide. EV71 is believed to replicate in muscles and infect motor neurons to reach the central nervous system (CNS). To further investigate the mechanisms involved, we have employed the motor neuron cell line NSC-34. NSC-34 cells were permissive to EV71 and virus production yields were strain-dependent with differential efficacy at the entry, replication and egress steps. Furthermore, unlike all the other cell lines previously reported, EV71-infected NSC-34 cells neither displayed cytopathic effect nor underwent apoptosis. Instead, autophagy was markedly up-regulated and virus-containing autophagic vacuoles were isolated from the culture supernatant, providing the first experimental evidence that EV71 can adopt a non-lytic exit pathway. Finally, the ability of EV71 to infect productively NSC-34 cells correlated with its ability to invade the CNS in vivo, supporting the relevance of NSC-34 cells to study the intrinsic neurovirulence of EV71 strains.
Project description:The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of minocycline on the expression of selected transcriptional and translational profiles in the rat spinal cord following sciatic nerve (SNR) transection and microsurgical coaptation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) were monitored in the rat lumbar spinal cord following microsurgical reconstruction of the sciatic nerves and minocycline treatment. The present study used semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. As a PCR analysis of spinal cord tissue enabled the examination of the expression patterns of all cell types including glia, the motorneuron-like NSC-34 cell line was used to investigate expression level changes in motorneurons. As stressors, oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment were performed. SNR did not induce significant degeneration of ventral horn motorneurons, whereas microglia activation and synaptic terminal retraction were detectable. All genes were constitutively expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in untreated spinal cord and control cells. SNR significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of all genes, albeit only temporarily. In all genes except MMP9 and GAP-43, the induction was seen ipsilaterally and contralaterally. The effects of minocycline were moderate. The expression levels of MMP9, TNF-?, MHC I, VEGF, and GAP-43 were reduced, whereas those of Bax and Bcl-2 were unaffected. OGD, but not LPS, was toxic for NSC-34 cells. No changes in the expression levels of Bax, caspase-3, MHC I or ATF3 were observed. These results indicated that motorneurons were not preferentially or solely responsible for SNR-mediated upregulation of these genes. MMP9, TNF-?, VEGF and Bcl-2 were stress-activated. These results suggest that a substantial participation of motorneurons in gene expression levels in vivo. Minocycline was also shown to have inhibitory effects. The nuclear factor-?B signalling pathway may be a possible target of minocycline.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported to be closely related to the development of ALS. However, the precise functions of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of ALS remain largely unknown. In previous studies, we determined that miRNA-193b-3p was significantly downregulated in patients with sporadic ALS (sALS). Here, we observed that miRNA-193b-3p was downregulated in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS and promoted cell death in NSC-34 cells. We further found that miR-193b-3p directly targeted tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1) to regulate mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. Downregulation of miR-193b-3p led to TSC1 increase accompanied with mTORC1 inactivation, and vice versa. Moreover, downregulation of miR-193b-3p promoted protective autophagy and cell survival in NSC-34 cells. In contrast, upregulation of miR-193b-3p activated mTORC1 signaling, leading to inhibition of autophagy and promotion of cell death. Taken together, our study suggests that downregulation of miR-193b-3p is required for cell survival by targeting TSC1/mTOR signaling in NSC-34 cells and provides a novel target for improving the clinical therapy of ALS.
Project description:We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas alcaliphila 34, a Cr(VI)-hyperresistant and biofilm-producing bacterium that might be used for the bioremediation of chromate-polluted soils. The genome sequence might be helpful in exploring the mechanisms involved in chromium resistance and biofilm formation.
Project description:The aim of this experiment was to assess the on- and off-target effects of MAPT-AS1 expression, and whether mutations/deletions to MAPT-AS1 alter these effects. SHSY5Y cells stably expressing variants of MAPT-AS1 were analyzed by Riboseq and Quantseq.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons (MNs). Evidences indicate that ALS is a non-cell autonomous disease in which glial cells participate in both disease onset and progression. Exosomal transfer of mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1) from cell-to-cell was suggested to contribute to disease dissemination. Data from our group and others showed that exosomes from activated cells contain inflammatory-related microRNAs (inflamma-miRNAs) that recapitulate the donor cell. While glia-derived exosomes and their effects in neurons have been addressed by several studies, only a few investigated the influence of motor neuron (MN)-derived exosomes in other cell function, the aim of the present study. We assessed a set of inflamma-miRs in NSC-34 MN-like cells transfected with mutant SOD1(G93A) and extended the study into their derived exosomes (mSOD1 exosomes). Then, the effects produced by mSOD1 exosomes in the activation and polarization of the recipient N9 microglial cells were investigated. Exosomes in coculture with N9 microglia and NSC-34 cells [either transfected with either wild-type (wt) human SOD1 or mutant SOD1(G93A)] showed to be transferred into N9 cells. Increased miR-124 expression was found in mSOD1 NSC-34 cells and in their derived exosomes. Incubation of mSOD1 exosomes with N9 cells determined a sustained 50% reduction in the cell phagocytic ability. It also caused a persistent NF-kB activation and an acute generation of NO, MMP-2, and MMP-9 activation, as well as upregulation of IL-1?, TNF-?, MHC-II, and iNOS gene expression, suggestive of induced M1 polarization. Marked elevation of IL-10, Arginase 1, TREM2, RAGE, and TLR4 mRNA levels, together with increased miR-124, miR-146a, and miR-155, at 24 h incubation, suggest the switch to mixed M1 and M2 subpopulations in the exosome-treated N9 microglial cells. Exosomes from mSOD1 NSC-34 MNs also enhanced the number of senescent-like positive N9 cells. Data suggest that miR-124 is translocated from the mSOD1 MNs to exosomes, which determine early and late phenotypic alterations in the recipient N9-microglial cells. In conclusion, modulation of the inflammatory-associated miR-124, in mSOD1 NSC-34 MNs, with potential benefits in the cargo of their exosomes may reveal a promising therapeutic strategy in halting microglia activation and associated effects in MN degeneration.
Project description:More than 120 cannabinoids were isolated from Cannabis sativa. In particular, Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabigerol (CBG) represent the two most studied non-psychoactive cannabinoids. However, CBG is less studied and less data are available on its biological properties and influence on synaptic transmission. On the contrary, CBD is already known to modulate brain excitatory glutamate, inhibitory ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine neurotransmission. In this study, using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, we evaluated how CBG (1 or 5 µM) and CBD (1 or 5 µM) influence the transcriptome of the main neurotransmission pathways in NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells. At first, we evaluated that CBG and CBD were not cytotoxic and decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes. CBG and CBD are able to influence the expression of the genes involved in glutamate, GABA and dopamine signaling. Interestingly, the transcriptional changes induced by CBG were similar compared to CBD.