MicroRNA profiling of human colorectal cancer samples with high microsatellite instability
ABSTRACT: Background. Colorectal cancer develops through two main genetic instability pathways characterized by distinct pathologic features and clinical outcome. Results. We investigated colon cancer samples (23 characterized by microsatellite stability, MSS, and 16 by high microsatellite instability, MSI-H) for genome-wide expression of microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA. Based on combined miRNA and mRNA gene expression, a molecular signature consisting of twenty seven differentially expressed genes, inclusive of 8 miRNAs, could correctly distinguish MSI-H versus MSS colon cancer samples. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, various members of the oncogenic miR-17-92 family were significantly up-regulated in MSS cancers. The majority of protein coding genes were also up-regulated in MSS cancers. Their functional classification revealed that they were most frequently associated with cell cycle, DNA replication, recombination, repair, gastrointestinal disease and immune response. Conclusions. This is the first report that indicates the existence of differences in miRNA expression between MSS versus MSI-H colorectal cancers. In addition, the work suggests that the combination of mRNA/miRNA expression signatures may represent a general approach for improving bio-molecular classification of human cancer.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding transcripts that play an important role in carcinogenesis. miRNA expression profiles have been shown to discriminate between different types of cancers. The aim of this study was to analyze global miRNA signatures in various groups of colorectal cancers (CRC) based on the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI).We analyzed genome-wide miRNA expression profiles in 54 CRC tissues [22 with Lynch syndrome, 13 with sporadic MSI due to MLH1 methylation, 19 without MSI (or microsatellite stable, MSS)] and 20 normal colonic tissues by miRNA microarrays. Using an independent set of MSI-positive samples (13 with Lynch syndrome and 20 with sporadic MSI), we developed a miRNA-based predictor to differentiate both types of MSI by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR.We found that the expression of a subset of nine miRNAs significantly discriminated between tumor and normal colonic mucosa tissues (overall error rate = 0.04). More importantly, Lynch syndrome tumors displayed a unique miRNA profile compared with sporadic MSI tumors; miR-622, miR-1238, and miR-192 were the most differentially expressed miRNAs between these two groups. We developed a miRNA-based predictor capable of differentiating between types of MSI in an independent sample set.CRC tissues show distinct miRNA expression profiles compared with normal colonic mucosa. The discovery of unique miRNA expression profiles that can successfully discriminate between Lynch syndrome, sporadic MSI, and sporadic MSS colorectal cancers provides novel insights into the role of miRNAs in colorectal carcinogenesis, which may contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disease.
Project description:The BRAF (V600E) mutation in colorectal cancers that are microsatellite stable (MSS) confers a poor patient prognosis, whereas BRAF mutant microsatellite-unstable (MSI) colorectal cancers have an excellent prognosis. BRAF wild type cancers are typically MSS and display chromosomal instability (CIN). CIN has not been extensively studied on a genome-wide basis in relation to BRAF mutational status in colorectal cancer. BRAF mutant/MSS (BRAFmut/MSS) cancers (n = 33) and BRAF mutant/MSI (BRAFmut/MSI) cancers (n = 30) were compared for presence of copy number aberrations (CNAs) indicative of CIN, with BRAF wild type/MSS (BRAFwt/MSS) cancers (n = 18) using Illumina CytoSNP-12 arrays. BRAFmut/MSS and BRAFwt/MSS cancers showed comparable numbers of CNAs/cancer at 32.8 and 29.8 respectively. However, there were differences in patterns of CNA length between MSS cohorts, with BRAFmut/MSS cancers having significantly greater proportions of focal CNAs compared to BRAFwt/MSS cancers (p<0.0001); whereas whole chromosomal arm CNAs were more common in BRAFwt/MSS cancers (p<0.0001). This related to a reduced average CNA length in BRAFmut/MSS compared to BRAFwt/MSS cancers (20.7 Mb vs 33.4 Mb;p<0.0001); and a smaller average percent of CIN affected genomes in BRAFmut/MSS compared to BRAFwt/MSS cancers (23.9% vs 34.9% respectively). BRAFmut/MSI cancers were confirmed to have low CNA rates (5.4/cancer) and minimal CIN-affected genomes (average of 4.5%) compared to MSS cohorts (p<0.0001). BRAFmut/MSS cancers had more frequent deletion CNAs compared to BRAFwt/MSS cancers on 6p and 17q at loci not typically correlated with colorectal cancer, and greater amplification CNAs on 8q and 18q compared to BRAFwt/MSS cancers. These results indicate that comparable rates of CIN occur between MSS subgroups, however significant differences in their patterns of instability exist, with BRAFmut/MSS cancers showing a 'focal pattern' and BRAFwt/MSS cancers having a 'whole arm pattern' of CIN. This and the genomic loci more frequently affected in BRAFmut/MSS cancers provides further evidence of the biological distinctions of this important cancer subgroup.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles for gastric cancers were examined to investigate the miRNA involvement in stomach carcinogenesis. miRNA microarray analysis identified statistical unique profiles, which could discriminate stomach cancers from noncancerous stomach tissues.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles for colon cancers were examined to investigate the miRNA involvement in colon carcinogenesis. miRNA microarray analysis identified statistical unique profiles, which could discriminate colon cancers from noncancerous colon tissues.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles for prostate cancers were examined to investigate the miRNA involvement in prostate carcinogenesis. miRNA microarray analysis identified statistical unique profiles, which could discriminate prostate cancers from noncancerous prostate tissues.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles for lung cancers were examined to investigate the miRNA involvement in lung carcinogenesis. miRNA microarray analysis identified statistical unique profiles, which could discriminate lung cancers from noncancerous lung tissues.
Project description:Microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis of colorectal cancers is clinically useful to identify patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) caused by germline mutations of mismatch repair genes. MSI status may also predict cancer response/resistance to certain chemotherapies. We evaluated the MSI Analysis System (Promega Corp.; five mononucleotide and two pentanucleotide repeats) and compared the results to the Bethesda panel, which interrogates five microsatellite loci recommended by the 1997 National Cancer Institute-sponsored MSI workshop (three dinucleotide and two mononucleotide repeats). Thirty-four colorectal cancers were analyzed by both assays. The overall concordance between the two assays was 85% (29 of 34). There was complete concordance between the two assays for all of the MSI-high (11 of 11) and microsatellite stable (MSS; 18 of 18) cases. In the 11 MSI-high cases, all 5 of the mononucleotide loci in the MSI Analysis System demonstrated shifted alleles (100% sensitivity), and each shift resulted in products that were smaller in size than the germline alleles. All (5 of 5) of the cases interpreted as MSI-low by the Bethesda assay were interpreted as MSS by the MSI Analysis System. Our results suggest that the MSI Analysis System is generally superior and may help resolve cases of MSI-low into either MSI-high or MSS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a clonal change in the number of repeated DNA nucleotide units in microsatellites. High-frequency MSI (MSI-H) colorectal cancers (CRCs) are known to have different clinicopathological features compared with microsatellite stable (MSS) CRCs. In addition, previous studies have shown that type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for malignant tumors including CRCs. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2DM and MSI-H colorectal cancer. METHODS:The study design is a single center, cross-sectional study. Data from a series of 936 patients with CRCs were collected and MSI status was assessed. RESULTS:In total, 29 (3.1%) and 907 (96.9%) tumors were classified as having MSI-H and low-frequency microsatellite instability or being MSS (MSS), respectively. Of the 936 patients, 275 (29.6%) were associated with T2DM. One (3.4%) of the 29 MSI-H patients and 274 (30.2%) of the 907 MSS patients had T2DM. Thus, the incidence of T2DM was significantly less frequent in MSI-H compared with MSS patients (Fisher's exact test: p = 0.0007). CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that MSS tumors are significantly more common than MSI-H tumors among individuals with T2DM.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancers displaying high-degree microsatellite instability (MSI-H) have an improved prognosis compared to microsatellite stable (MSS) cancers. The observation of pronounced lymphocytic infiltrates suggests that MSI-H cancers are inherently more immunogenic. We aimed to compare the gene expression profiles of MSI-H and MSS cancers to provide evidence for an activated immune response in the former. RESULTS: We analysed tissue from 133 colorectal cancer patients with full consent and Local Ethics Committee approval. Genomic DNA was analysed for microsatellite instability in BAT-26. High-quality RNA was used for microarray analysis on the Affymetrix HG-U133A chip. Data was analysed on GeneSpring software version 6.0. Confirmatory real-time RT-PCR was performed on 28 MSI-H and 26 MSS cancers. A comparison of 29 MSI-H and 104 MSS cancers identified 2070 genes that were differentially expressed between the two groups [P < 0.005]. Significantly, many key immunomodulatory genes were up-regulated in MSI-H cancers. These included antigen chaperone molecules (HSP-70, HSP-110, Calreticulin, gp96), pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-18, IL-15, IL-8, IL-24, IL-7) and cytotoxic mediators (Granulysin, Granzyme A). Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of HSP-70 [P = 0.016], HSP-110 [P = 0.002], IL-18 [P = 0.004], IL-8 [0.002] and Granulysin [P < 0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of a large number of genes implicated in immune response supports the theory that MSI-H cancers are immunogenic. The novel observation of Heat Shock Protein up-regulation in MSI-H cancer is highly significant in light of the recognised roles of these proteins in innate and antigen-specific immunogenicity. Increased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic mediators also indicate an activated anti-tumour immune response.