BACKGROUND: Brown algae of the genus Ectocarpus exhibit high levels of genetic diversity and variability in morphological and physiological characteristics. With the establishment of E. siliculosus as a model and the availability of a complete genome sequence, it is now of interest to analyze variability among different species, ecotypes, and strains of the genus Ectocarpus both at the genome and the transcriptome level. RESULTS: We used an E. siliculosus gene expression microarray based on EST ...[more]
Project description:Comparative Genome Hybridization of Ectocarpus siliculosus strains 371 (freshwater ecotype), 524 (copper-tolerant strain), and 568 (female strain), as well as E. fasciculatus strain 395 against the sequenced genome strain (32).
Project description:Leukemias are characterized by bone marrow failure due to oncogenic mutations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) or blood precursor cells. HSC differentiation and self-renewal properties are tightly regulated by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, a well-characterized family of transcriptional epigenetic regulators. PcG proteins form two canonical complexes: Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2).CBX proteins link the activity of PRC1 with PRC2, serving as critical regulators of PcG-mediating activity. While the functional role of some CBX proteins in cancer has been largely explored, recent reports support the specific role of CBX2 in human tumors, thus it represent a promising new target for anti-cancer strategies. To date, chromodomain inhibitors have been identified for CBX7 , but no molecules inhibiting CBX2 have been described. Nevertheless, different chromatin-modulating drugs such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are reported to regulate CBX2 targets on chromatin, suggesting that HDACi might be used to indirectly modulate aberrant effects of CBX2 in cancer. We describe a novel SAHA-mediated mechanism of CBX2 post-translational regulation. We found that CBX2 undergoes SAHA-induced SUMO2/3 modification and that CBX2 SUMOylation promotes its ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. We also identified the specific molecular pathway and key players regulating CBX2 stability, demonstrating that CBX4 and RNF4 act as the E3 SUMO and E3 ubiquitin ligase, respectively. Additionally, CBX2-depleted leukemic cells display impaired proliferation, showing that CBX2 is required for leukemia cell clonogenicity. Our study provides the first evidence of a non-canonical SAHA-mediated anti-tumorigenic activity via CBX2 SUMOylation and degradation
Project description:As part of the Dystrophia Myotonica Biomarker Discovery Initiative (DMBDI) a dataset was obtained from 35 participants, including 31 Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) cases and four unaffected controls. All DM1 cases in this research were heterozygous for the abnormally expanded CTG repeat. The mode of the length of the DM1 CTG expansion (Modal Allele Length, MAL) was determined by small-pool PCR of blood DNA for 35/36 patients. For this work we did not attempt to measure the repeat length from muscle, due to a very high degree of repeat instability in muscle cells, and associated difficulties in its experimental measurement. One patient refused blood donation. For each of the 35 blood-donating patients mRNA expression profiling of blood was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip™ Human Exon 1.0 ST microarray. For 28 of 36 patients a successful quadriceps muscle biopsy was obtained. The muscle tissue was mRNA profiled using the same type of microarray. In total, a complete set of samples (blood and muscle) was obtained for 27 of 36 patients; samples were given a disease staging score based on muscle impairment rating. mRNA profiling was carried out by the GeneLogic service lab (on a fee-for-service basis) using standard Affymetrix hybridisation protocol.
Project description:Organoid technology provides the possibility to culture human colon
tissue and patient-derived colorectal cancers (CRC) while maintaining
all functional and phenotypic characteristics. Labeling of human colon
stem cells (CoSCs), especially in normal and benign tumor organoids, is
challenging and therefore limits usability of multi-patient organoid
libraries for CoSC research. Here, we developed STAR (STem cell Ascl2
Reporter), a minimal enhancer/promoter element that reports
transcriptional activity of ASCL2, a master regulator of LGR5+ CoSC
fate. Among others via lentiviral infection, STAR minigene labels stem
cells in normal as well as in multiple engineered and patient-derived
CRC organoids of different stage and genetic make-up. STAR revealed that
stem cell driven differentiation hierarchies and the capacity of cell
fate plasticity (de-differentiation) are present at all stages of human
CRC development. The flexible and user-friendly nature of STAR
applications in combination with organoid technology will facilitate
basic research on human adult stem cell biology.
Project description:A global survey of RNA from 14 fetal and 13 adult human organs by RT-PCR determined the expression patterns of 790 genes encoding DNA-binding transcription factors. The data can be sorted to identify sets of transcription factors with expression relatively restricted to a given organ or to particular organ groups. These data are a resource to help define the spectrum of transcription factor control, contribute to the elucidation of transcription factor cascades responsible for the development and maintenance of each organ, and provide a baseline to study the effects of disease or developmental defects.
Project description:Splenic marginal zone lymphomas (SMZL) are an uncommon type of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL-B) in which no specific chromosomal translocations have been described. In contrast, the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality is the loss of the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q). Previous reports have located this loss in the 7q32 region. In order to better characterize the genomic imbalances in SMZL, molecular studies were carried out in 73 patients with SMZL. To gain insight into the mapping at 7q a tiling array was also used. Our results confirmed the presence of a new region of loss on chromosome 7 in these NHL. In order to better characterize the genomic imbalances in SMZL, molecular studies were carried out in 69 patients with SMZL.
Project description:A recently isolated phage, vB_EcoP_SU10 (SU10) with unusual elongated C3 morphotype, can infect a wide range of E.coli strains. We have sequenced the genome of SU10, and further characterization has been conducted by MS-based proteomics.