Project description:Crossing the Cyp1a1/1a2(-/-) double-knockout mouse with the Cyp1b1(-/-) single-knockout mouse, we generated the Cyp1a1/1a2/1b1(-/-) triple-knockout mouse. In this triple-knockout mouse, statistically significant phenotypes (with incomplete penetrance) included slower weight gain and greater risk of embryolethality before gestational day 11, hydrocephalus, hermaphroditism, and cystic ovaries. Oral benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) daily for 18 days in the Cyp1a1/1a2(-/-) produced the same degree of marked immunosuppression as seen in the Cyp1a1(-/-) mouse; we believe this reflects the absence of intestinal CYP1A1. Oral BaP-treated Cyp1a1/1a2/1b1(-/-) mice showed the same "rescued" response as that seen in the Cyp1a1/1b1(-/-) mouse; we believe this reflects the absence of CYP1B1 in immune tissues. Urinary metabolite profiles were dramatically different between untreated triple-knockout and wild-type; principal components analysis showed that the shifts in urinary metabolite patterns in oral BaP-treated triple-knockout and wild-type mice were also strikingly different. Liver microarray cDNA differential expression (comparing triple-knockout with wild-type) revealed at least 89 genes up- and 62 genes down-regulated (P-value < or = 0.00086). Gene Ontology "classes of genes" most perturbed in the untreated triple-knockout (compared with wild-type) include lipid, steroid, and cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism; nucleosome and chromatin assembly; carboxylic and organic acid metabolism; metal-ion binding; and ion homeostasis. In the triple-knockout compared with the wild-type mice, response to zymosan-induced peritonitis was strikingly exaggerated, which may well reflect down-regulation of Socs2 expression. If a single common molecular pathway is responsible for all of these phenotypes, we suggest that functional effects of the loss of all three Cyp1 genes could be explained by perturbations in CYP1-mediated eicosanoid production, catabolism and activities.
Project description:Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a prototypical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) found in combustion processes. Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 enzymes (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) can both detoxify PAHs and activate them to cancer-causing reactive intermediates. Following high dosage of oral BaP (125 mg/kg/day), ablation of the mouse Cyp1a1 gene causes immunosuppression and death within ?28 days, whereas Cyp1(+/+) wild-type mice remain healthy for >12 months on this regimen. In this study, male Cyp1(+/+) wild-type, Cyp1a1(-/-) and Cyp1b1(-/-) single-knockout and Cyp1a1/1b1(-/-) double-knockout mice received a lower dose (12.5 mg/kg/day) of oral BaP. Tissues from 16 different organs-including proximal small intestine (PSI), liver and preputial gland duct (PGD)-were evaluated; microarray cDNA expression and >30 mRNA levels were measured. Cyp1a1(-/-) mice revealed markedly increased CYP1B1 mRNA levels in the PSI, and between 8 and 12 weeks developed unique PSI adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Cyp1a1/1b1(-/-) mice showed no PSI tumors but instead developed squamous cell carcinoma of the PGD. Cyp1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(-/-) mice remained healthy with no remarkable abnormalities in any tissue examined. PSI adenocarcinomas exhibited striking upregulation of the Xist gene, suggesting epigenetic silencing of specific genes on the Y-chromosome; the Rab30 oncogene was upregulated; the Nr0b2 tumor suppressor gene was downregulated; paradoxical overexpression of numerous immunoglobulin kappa- and heavy-chain variable genes was found-although the adenocarcinoma showed no immunohistochemical evidence of being lymphatic in origin. This oral BaP mouse paradigm represents an example of "gene-environment interactions" in which the same exposure of carcinogen results in altered target organ and tumor type, as a function of just 1 or 2 globally absent genes.
Project description:Here we report on a technical difficulty we encountered while optimizing genotyping strategies to identify mice derived from Exoc3l2tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi embryonic stem cells obtained from the Knockout Mouse Project Repository. The Exoc3l2tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi construct encodes a "knockout-first" design with loxP sites that confer conditional potential (KO1st). We designed primers that targeted wild-type sequences flanking the most downstream element of the construct, an 80 base pair synthetic loxP region, which BLAST alignment analysis reveals is an element common to over 10,000 conditional gene-targeting mouse models. As PCR products amplified from KO1st and wild-type templates would have different lengths (and different mobility in an agarose gel) this strategy was designed to determine the zygosity of individual mice from a single PCR. In parallel we performed PCR with a primer specifically targeting the synthetic loxP sequence. Unexpectedly, while the latter strategy detected the synthetic loxP region and correctly genotyped KO1st chimeric mice, the same individuals were genotyped as wild-type when using the primers that flanked the synthetic loxP region. We discuss the possibility that secondary DNA structures, formed due to the palindromic nature of the synthetic loxP region, may have caused the KO1st template to elude the PCR when using primers that flanked this region. This brief report aims to raise awareness regarding this potential source of false-negative genotype results, particularly for those who are devising genotyping strategies for similarly engineered animal models.
Project description:Background and purpose:Recent reports from our laboratory demonstrated the post-ischaemic expression profile of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in rats and the detrimental role of MMP-12 in post-stroke brain damage. We hypothesise that the post-stroke dysregulation of MMPs is similar across species and that genetic deletion of MMP-12 would not affect the post-stroke expression of other MMPs. We tested our hypothesis by determining the pre-ischaemic and post-ischaemic expression profile of MMPs in wild-type and MMP-12 knockout mice. Methods:Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in wild-type and MMP-12 knockout mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion procedure by insertion of a monofilament suture. One hour after ischaemia, reperfusion was initiated by removing the monofilament. One day after reperfusion, ischaemic brain tissues from various groups of mice were collected, and total RNA was isolated and subjected to cDNA synthesis followed by PCR analysis. Results:Although the post-stroke expression profile of MMPs in the ischaemic brain of mice is different from rats, there is a clear species similarity in the expression of MMP-12, which was found to be predominantly upregulated in both species. Further, the post-stroke induction or inhibition of various MMPs in MMP-12 knockout mice is different from their respective expression profile in wild-type mice. Moreover, the brain mRNA expression profile of various MMPs in MMP-12 knockout mice under normal conditions is also different to their expression in wild-type mice. Conclusions:In the ischaemic brain, MMP-12 upregulates several fold higher than any other MMP. Mice derived with the genetic deletion of MMP-12 are constitutive and have altered MMP expression profile both under normal and ischaemic conditions.
Project description:To investigate the mechanisms of clearance of AMG 386, an investigational recombinant peptide-Fc fusion protein (peptibody) that blocks tumor angiogenesis by neutralizing the interaction between angiopoietin-1 and -2 and the Tie2 receptor.The role of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in AMG 386 clearance was assessed in wild-type and FcRn-knockout mice; the roles of the spleen and kidneys were assessed in splenectomized and 5/6th nephrectomized rats, respectively, compared with sham-operated rats. Animals were administered AMG 386 as a single intravenous dose of 3 or 10 mg/kg. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected periodically throughout a 504-hour postdose period.Compared with wild-type mice, AMG 386 clearance in FcRn-knockout mice was 18-fold faster at the 3-mg/kg dose (FcRn knockout, 13.2 mL/h/kg; wild-type, 0.728 mL/h/kg) and 14-fold faster at the 10-mg/kg dose (FcRn knockout, 10.7 mL/h/kg; wild-type, 0.777 mL/h/kg). Clearance in nephrectomized rats was slower than in sham-operated rats at both the 3-mg/kg dose (nephrectomized, 1.23 mL/h/kg; sham-operated, 1.75 mL/h/kg) and the 10-mg/kg dose (nephrectomized, 1.14 mL/h/kg; sham-operated, 1.65 mL/h/kg). Splenectomy had no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetics of AMG 386.The FcRn is integral to maintaining circulating levels of AMG 386 in mice. Renal clearance contributed approximately 30% to total AMG 386 clearance in rats.
Project description:Metformin, the most widely prescribed antidiabetic drug, requires transporters to enter tissues involved in its pharmacologic action, including liver, kidney, and peripheral tissues. Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3, SLC22A3), expressed ubiquitously, transports metformin, but its in vivo role in metformin response is not known. Using Oct3 knockout mice, the role of the transporter in metformin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was determined. After an intravenous dose of metformin, a 2-fold decrease in the apparent volume of distribution and clearance was observed in knockout compared with wild-type mice (P < 0.001), indicating an important role of OCT3 in tissue distribution and elimination of the drug. After oral doses, a significantly lower bioavailability was observed in knockout compared with wild-type mice (0.27 versus 0.58, P < 0.001). Importantly, metformin's effect on the plasma glucose concentration-time curve was reduced in knockout compared with wild-type mice (12 versus 30% reduction, respectively, P < 0.05) along with its accumulation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect of metformin on phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase, and expression of glucose transporter type 4 was absent in the adipose tissue of Oct3(-/-) mice. Additional analysis revealed that an OCT3 3' untranslated region variant was associated with reduced activity in luciferase assays and reduced response to metformin in 57 healthy volunteers. These findings suggest that OCT3 plays an important role in the absorption and elimination of metformin and that the transporter is a critical determinant of metformin bioavailability, clearance, and pharmacologic action.
Project description:Ozonide OZ439 is a synthetic peroxide antimalarial drug candidate designed to provide a single-dose oral cure in humans. OZ439 has successfully completed Phase I clinical trials, where it was shown to be safe at doses up to 1,600 mg and is currently undergoing Phase IIa trials in malaria patients. Herein, we describe the discovery of OZ439 and the exceptional antimalarial and pharmacokinetic properties that led to its selection as a clinical drug development candidate. In vitro, OZ439 is fast-acting against all asexual erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum stages with IC(50) values comparable to those for the clinically used artemisinin derivatives. Unlike all other synthetic peroxides and semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives, OZ439 completely cures Plasmodium berghei-infected mice with a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg and exhibits prophylactic activity superior to that of the benchmark chemoprophylactic agent, mefloquine. Compared with other peroxide-containing antimalarial agents, such as the artemisinin derivatives and the first-generation ozonide OZ277, OZ439 exhibits a substantial increase in the pharmacokinetic half-life and blood concentration versus time profile in three preclinical species. The outstanding efficacy and prolonged blood concentrations of OZ439 are the result of a design strategy that stabilizes the intrinsically unstable pharmacophoric peroxide bond, thereby reducing clearance yet maintaining the necessary Fe(II)-reactivity to elicit parasite death.
Project description:Fatty acids comprise the primary energy source for the heart and are mainly taken up via hydrolysis of circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. While most of the fatty acids entering the cardiomyocyte are oxidized, a small portion is involved in altering gene transcription to modulate cardiometabolic functions. So far, no in vivo model has been developed enabling study of the transcriptional effects of specific fatty acids in the intact heart. In the present study, mice were given a single oral dose of synthetic triglycerides composed of one single fatty acid. Hearts were collected 6h thereafter and used for whole genome gene expression profiling. Experiments were conducted in wild-type and PPARalpha-/- mice to allow exploration of the specific contribution of PPARalpha. It was found that: 1) linolenic acid (C18:3) had the most pronounced effect on cardiac gene expression. 2) The largest similarity in gene regulation was observed between linoleic acid (C18:2) and C18:3. Large similarity was also observed between the synthetic PPARalpha agonist Wy14643 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6). 3) Many genes were regulated by one particular treatment only. Genes regulated by one particular treatment showed large functional divergence. 4) The majority of genes responding to fatty acid treatment were regulated in a PPARalpha-dependent manner, emphasizing the importance of PPARalpha in mediating transcriptional regulation by fatty acids in the heart. 5) Several genes were robustly regulated by all or many of the fatty acids studied, mostly representing well-described targets of PPARs (e.g. Acot1, Angptl4, Ucp3). 6) Deletion and activation of PPARalpha had a major effect on expression of numerous genes involved in metabolism and immunity. Our analysis demonstrates the marked impact of dietary fatty acids on gene regulation in the heart via PPARalpha. To study the transcriptional effects of specific fatty acids in the intact heart, wild type and PPARalpha-/- mice were given a single oral dose of 4 synthetic triglycerides composed of one single fatty acid, as well as of the synthetic PPARalpha agonist Wy14,643. Hearts were collected 6h after gavag and used for whole genome gene expression profiling.
Project description:KCNE1 is a protein of low molecular mass that is known to regulate the chromanol 293B and clofilium-sensitive K+ channel, KCNQ1, in a number of tissues. Previous work on the kidney of KCNE1 and KCNQ1 knockout mice has revealed that these animals have different renal phenotypes, suggesting that KCNE1 may not regulate KCNQ1 in the renal system. In the current study, in vivo clearance approaches and whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from isolated renal proximal tubules were used to examine the physiological role of KCNE1. Data from wild-type mice were compared to those from KCNE1 knockout mice. In clearance studies the KCNE1 knockout mice had an increased fractional excretion of Na+, Cl?, HCO3(?) and water. This profile was mimicked in wild-type mice by infusion of chromanol 293B, while chromanol was without effect in KCNE1 knockout animals. Clofilium also increased the fractional excretion of Na+, Cl? and water, but this was observed in both wild-type and knockout mice, suggesting that KCNE1 was regulating a chromanol-sensitive but clofilium-insensitive pathway. In whole cell voltage clamp recordings from proximal tubules, a chromanol-sensitive, K+-selective conductance was identified that was absent in tubules from knockout animals. The properties of this conductance were not consistent with its being mediated by KCNQ1, suggesting that KCNE1 regulates another K+ channel in the renal proximal tubule. Taken together these data suggest that KCNE1 regulates a K+-selective conductance in the renal proximal tubule that plays a relatively minor role in driving the transport of Na+, Cl? and HCO3(?).
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:To present results from in vivo studies underlying the preclinical development of lemborexant (E2006), a novel dual orexin (hypocretin) receptor antagonist for sleep/wake regulation. METHODS:Rodent (wild-type rats and wild-type and orexin neuron-deficient [orexin/ataxin-3 Tg/+] mice) studies were performed to evaluate the effects of single-dose oral lemborexant (1-300 mg/kg) on orexin-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), locomotor activity, vigilance state measures (wakefulness, nonrapid eye movement [non-REM] sleep, rapid eye movement [REM] sleep), ethanol-induced anesthesia, and motor coordination, and the effects of multiple-dose oral lemborexant (30 mg/kg) on vigilance state measures. Active comparators were almorexant and zolpidem. Pharmacokinetics were assessed after single-dose lemborexant in mice and rats. RESULTS:Lemborexant prevented the orexin-promoted increase in ACTH in rats, therefore demonstrating inhibition of the orexin signaling pathway. Furthermore, lemborexant promoted sleep in wild-type mice and rats. Lemborexant promoted REM and non-REM sleep at an equal rate (there was no change in the REM sleep ratio). In contrast, zolpidem reduced REM sleep. The sleep-promoting effect of lemborexant was mediated via the orexin-peptide signaling pathway as demonstrated by a lack of sleep promotion in orexin neuron-deficient mice. Chronic dosing was not associated with a change in effect size or sleep architecture immediately postdosing. Lemborexant did not increase the sedative effects of ethanol or impair motor coordination, showing good safety margin in animals. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data for mice and rats were well aligned. CONCLUSIONS:These findings supported further clinical evaluation (ongoing at this time) of lemborexant as a potential candidate for treating insomnia and other sleep disorders.