Project description:BACKGROUND: Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. RESULTS: The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was approximately 49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million). Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. CONCLUSION: The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed evidence of antisense expression not previously reported in grapes but comparable to that reported in other plant species. Finally, we developed a novel web-based, public resource for utilization of the grape MPSS data .
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), involving in various biological and metabolic processes, have been discovered and analyzed in quite a number of plants species, such as Arabidopsis, rice and other plants. However, there have been few reports about grapevine miRNAs in response to gibberelline (GA3). RESULTS: Solexa technology was used to sequence small RNA libraries constructed from grapevine berries treated with GA3 and the control. A total of 122 known and 90 novel grapevine miRNAs (Vvi-miRNAs) were identified. Totally, 137 ones were found to be clearly responsive to GA3, among which 58 were down-regulated, 51 were up-regulated, 21 could only be detected in the control, and seven were only detected in the treatment. Subsequently, we found that 28 of them were differentially regulated by GA3, with 12 conserved and 16 novel Vvi-miRNAs, based on the analysis of qRT-PCR essays. There existed some consistency in expression levels of GA3-responsive Vvi-miRNAs between high throughput sequencing and qRT-PCR essays. In addition, 117 target genes for 29 novel miRNAs were predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Deep sequencing of short RNAs from grapevine berries treated with GA3 and the control identified 137 GA3-responsive miRNAs, among which 28 exhibited different expression profiles of response to GA3 in the diverse developmental stages of grapevine berries. These identified Vvi-miRNAs might be involved in the grapevine berry development and response to environmental stresses.
Project description:Terpenes are of great interest to winemakers because of their extremely low perception thresholds and pleasant floral odors. Even for the same variety, terpene profile can be substantially different for grapevine growing environments. Recently a series of genes required for terpene biosynthesis were biochemically characterized in grape berries. However, the genes that dominate the differential terpene accumulation of grape berries between regions have yet to be identified.Free and glycosidically-bound terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The transcription expression profiling of the genes was obtained by RNA sequencing and part of the results were verified by quantitative real time PCR (QPCR). The gene co-expression networks were constructed with the Cytoscape software v 2.8.2 ( www.cytoscape.org).'Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains' berries were collected from two wine-producing regions with strikingly different climates, Gaotai (GT) in Gansu Province and Changli (CL) in Hebei Province in China, at four developmental stages for two consecutive years. GC-MS analysis demonstrated that both free and glycosidically bound terpenes accumulated primarily after veraison and that mature grape berries from CL contained significantly higher concentrations of free and glycosidically bound terpenes than berries from GT. Transcriptome analysis revealed that some key genes involved in terpene biosynthesis were markedly up-regulated in the CL region. Particularly in the MEP pathway, the expression of VviHDR (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase) paralleled with the accumulation of terpenes, which can promote the flow of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) into the terpene synthetic pathway. The glycosidically bound monoterpenes accumulated differentially along with maturation in both regions, which is synchronous with the expression of a monoterpene glucosyltransferase gene (VviUGT85A2L4 (VviGT14)). Other genes were also found to be related to the differential accumulation of terpenes and monoterpene glycosides in the grapes between regions. Transcription factors that could regulate terpene synthesis were predicted through gene co-expression network analysis. Additionally, the genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene signal responses were expressed at high levels earlier in GT grapes than in CL grapes.Differential production of free and glycosidically-bound terpenes in grape berries across GT and CL regions should be related at least to the expression of both VviHDR and VviUGT85A2L4 (VviGT14). Considering the expression patterns of both transcription factors and mature-related genes, we infer that less rainfall and stronger sunshine in the GT region could initiate the earlier expression of ripening-related genes and accelerate the berry maturation, eventually limiting the production of terpene volatiles.
Project description:We report the high-throughput profiling of microRNAs (miRNAs) from the prefrontal cortex of controls, early and late-stages Alzheimer's disease subjects. We show miRNA expression changes between the two groups and down-regulation of miR-132-3p in the late-stages group. Deep-sequencing of microiRNAs in 6 controls/early-stages and 6 late-stages Alzheimer's disease patients
Project description:To obtain an interpretation from the view of transcriptome on distinct metabolite accumulation between ecologically different regions in China, next-generation sequencing technology was performed on E-L 31, 35?36 and 38 stages of Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains grape berries from Changli (CL, eastern) and Gaotai (GT, western). Transcriptome analysis revealed that some key genes involved in terpene synthesis were markedly up-regulated in the CL region. Particularly in the MEP pathway, the expression of VvHDR (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase) paralleled with the accumulation of terpenes, which can promote the flow of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) into the terpene synthetic pathway. The glycosidically bound monoterpenes accumulated differentially along with maturation in both regions, which is synchronous with the expression of a monoterpene glucosyltransferase gene (VvGT14). Other genes were also found to be related to the differential accumulation of terpenes and monoterpene glycosides in the grapes between regions. Transcription factors that could regulate terpene synthesis were predicted through gene co-expression network analysis. Additionally, the genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene signal responses were expressed at high levels earlier in GT grapes than in CL grapes. cDNA libraries generated from four developmental stages (E-L 31, 35, 36 and 38) of Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains grape berries in two consecutive years from Changli (CL) and Gaotai (GT) in China were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000.Only one RNA-seq library was constructed for each of the E-L31 and E-L36 stage samples because of the small amount of high quality RNA acquired, whereas two libraries were constructed for each of the E-L35 and E-L38 stage samples. As a result, a total of 24 libraries were obtained for the two regions within two years.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. RESULTS: A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz) berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison) and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest). Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million) onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of 12 differentially expressed genes from primary and secondary metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we report the global transcriptional profile of Shiraz grapes at key stages of development. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of gene families contributing to commercially important berry characteristics and present examples of co-regulation and differential gene expression. The data reported here will provide an invaluable resource for the on-going molecular investigation of wine grapes.
Project description:Berries have been used as valuable sources of polyphenols for human health; however, injudicious uses of berries are widespread without regard to the specific metabolite constituent of each berry. We classified 6 different edible berries (honeyberry, blueberry, mandarin melonberry, mulberry, chokeberry, and Korean black raspberry) based on their metabolite distributions in biosynthetic pathways by non-targeted metabolite profiling and bioactive correlation analysis. Principal component analysis revealed a distinct clustering pattern of metabolites for each berry. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed different biosynthetic routes of secondary metabolites in each berry. Mandarin melonberry contains a relatively higher proportion of genistein, genistein glycoside, and genistein-derived isoflavonoids and prenylflavonoids than the other berries. Various anthocyanin glycosides, synthesized from dihydroquercetin and cyanidin, were more abundant in chokeberry and honeyberry, whereas high levels of flavonoid-and anthocyanins-rutinoside forms were observed in Korean black raspberry. The levels of anthocyanins derived from dihydromyricetin were high in blueberry. The highest anti-oxidant activity was observed in chokeberry and Korean black raspberry, which is positively related to the proportional concentration of flavonoids, phenolics, and anthocyanins. The lowest sugar contents were observed in Korean black raspberry, highest acidity in honeyberry, and lowest acidity in mandarin melonberry, which were specific characteristics among the berries. Taken together, biosynthetic pathway and physicochemical characteristics analyses revealed that the different synthesized routes of flavonoids and anthocyanins and associated bio-activities may be distinct features in each berry and explain their phenotypic diversity at the molecular level.
Project description:Several methods for characterizing DNA-protein interactions are available, but none have demonstrated both high throughput and quantitative measurement of affinity. Here we describe 'high-throughput sequencing'-'fluorescent ligand interaction profiling' (HiTS-FLIP), a technique for measuring quantitative protein-DNA binding affinity at unprecedented depth. In this approach, the optics built into a high-throughput sequencer are used to visualize in vitro binding of a protein to sequenced DNA in a flow cell. Application of HiTS-FLIP to the protein Gcn4 (Gcn4p), the master regulator of the yeast amino acid starvation response, yielded ~440 million binding measurements, enabling determination of dissociation constants for all 12-mer sequences having submicromolar affinity. These data revealed a complex interdependency between motif positions, allowed improved discrimination of in vivo Gcn4p binding sites and regulatory targets relative to previous methods and showed that sets of genes with different promoter affinities to Gcn4p have distinct functions and expression kinetics. Broad application of this approach should increase understanding of the interactions that drive transcription.
Project description:Secondary metabolism contributes to the adaptation of a plant to its environment. In wine grapes, fruit secondary metabolism largely determines wine quality. Climate change is predicted to exacerbate drought events in several viticultural areas, potentially affecting the wine quality. In red grapes, water deficit modulates flavonoid accumulation, leading to major quantitative and compositional changes in the profile of the anthocyanin pigments; in white grapes, the effect of water deficit on secondary metabolism is still largely unknown.In this study we investigated the impact of water deficit on the secondary metabolism of white grapes using a large scale metabolite and transcript profiling approach in a season characterized by prolonged drought. Irrigated grapevines were compared to non-irrigated grapevines that suffered from water deficit from early stages of berry development to harvest. A large effect of water deficit on fruit secondary metabolism was observed. Increased concentrations of phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes, and tocopherols were detected, while carotenoid and flavonoid accumulations were differentially modulated by water deficit according to the berry developmental stage. The RNA-sequencing analysis carried out on berries collected at three developmental stages-before, at the onset, and at late ripening-indicated that water deficit affected the expression of 4,889 genes. The Gene Ontology category secondary metabolic process was overrepresented within up-regulated genes at all the stages of fruit development considered, and within down-regulated genes before ripening. Eighteen phenylpropanoid, 16 flavonoid, 9 carotenoid, and 16 terpenoid structural genes were modulated by water deficit, indicating the transcriptional regulation of these metabolic pathways in fruit exposed to water deficit. An integrated network and promoter analyses identified a transcriptional regulatory module that encompasses terpenoid genes, transcription factors, and enriched drought-responsive elements in the promoter regions of those genes as part of the grapes response to drought.Our study reveals that grapevine berries respond to drought by modulating several secondary metabolic pathways, and particularly, by stimulating the production of phenylpropanoids, the carotenoid zeaxanthin, and of volatile organic compounds such as monoterpenes, with potential effects on grape and wine antioxidant potential, composition, and sensory features.