Project description:Ozone at an elevated level is an important environmental stress factor that limits plant growth and development. To test how O3-induced ROS signalling interacts with the ABA pathway we present a global characterization of O3-responsive genes in the abi1td mutant. To understand better ABA signalling and the interactions between stress-response pathways we also performed a microarray analysis of drought-treated abi1td and WT plants. Since ABA signalling is well known to mediate defined responses based on the WT and different mutants analysis in drought stress conditions, the comparison of the O3 and drought stress response in abi1td enabled the identification of new processes depending on ABA-related pathways in O3-treated plants. Altogether, our findings indicate that ABI1 plays the role of a general signal transducer linking diferrent hormone signalling pathways to O3 stress tolerance.<br><br><br><br>Key words: ROS signalling; ABA signalling; ozone stress; drought stress; environmental stress; gene knockout;
Project description:<h4>Main conclusion</h4>The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus acclimation to long-term summer drought followed by re-watering in Mediterranean field conditions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in these plants, a proteomic study using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was performed on leaves from these shrubs. The analysis identified 57 differentially expressed proteins in water-stressed plants when contrasted to well watered. Water-stressed plants showed an increase, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in HSPs, and downregulation of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism enzymes. Under drought conditions, there was considerable upregulation of enzymes related to redox homeostasis, DHA reductase, Glyoxalase, SOD and isoflavone reductase. However, upregulation of catalase was not observed until after re-watering was carried out. Drought treatment caused an enhancement in antioxidant defense responses that can be modulated by ABA, and its catabolites, ABA-GE, as well as JA. Furthermore, quantification of protein carbonylation was shown to be a useful marker of the relationship between water and oxidative stress, and showed that there was only moderate oxidative stress in C. albidus plants subjected to water stress. After re-watering plants recovered although the levels of ABA-GE and antioxidant enzymes still remain higher than in well-watered plants. We expect that our results will provide new data on summer acclimation to drought stress in Mediterranean shrubs.
Project description:Drought stress conditions in soil or air hinder plant growth and development. Here, we report that the hot pepper (C apsicum a nnuum) RING type E3 Ligase 1 gene (CaREL1) is essential to the drought stress response. CaREL1 encodes a cytoplasmic- and nuclear-localized protein with E3 ligase activity. CaREL1 expression was induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and drought. CaREL1 contains a C3H2C3-type RING finger motif, which functions in ubiquitination of the target protein. We used CaREL1-silenced pepper plants and CaREL1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate the in vivo function of CaREL1 in response to drought stress and ABA treatment. CaREL1-silenced pepper plants displayed a drought-tolerant phenotype characterized by ABA hypersensitivity. In contrast, CaREL1-OX plants exhibited ABA hyposensitivity during the germination, seedling, and adult stages. In addition, plant growth was severely impaired under drought stress conditions, via a high level of transpirational water loss and decreased stomatal closure. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that ABA-related drought stress responsive genes were more weakly expressed in CaREL1-OX plants than in wild-type plants, indicating that CaREL1 functions in the drought stress response via the ABA-signalling pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that CaREL1 functions as a negative regulator of ABA-mediated drought stress tolerance.
Project description:Global transcriptome studies demonstrated the existence of unique plant responses under combined stress which are otherwise not seen during individual stresses. In order to combat combined stress plants use signaling pathways and 'cross talk' mediated by hormones involved in stress and growth related processes. However, interactions among hormones' pathways in combined stressed plants are not yet known. Here we studied dynamics of different hormones under individual and combined drought and pathogen infection in Arabidopsis thaliana by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based profiling. Our results revealed abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) as key regulators under individual drought and pathogen stress respectively. Under combined drought and host pathogen stress (DH) we observed non-induced levels of ABA with an upsurge in SA and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations, underscoring their role in basal tolerance against host pathogen. Under a non-host pathogen interaction with drought (DNH) stressed plants, ABA, SA and JA profiles were similar to those under DH or non-host pathogen alone. We propose that plants use SA/JA dependent signaling during DH stress which antagonize ABA biosynthesis and signaling pathways during early stage of stress. The study provides insights into hormone modulation at different time points during combined stress.
Project description:It is widely known that numerous adaptive responses of drought-stressed plants are stimulated by chemical messengers known as phytohormones. Jasmonic acid (JA) is one such phytohormone. But there are very few reports revealing its direct implication in drought related responses or its cross-talk with other phytohormones. In this study, we compared the morpho-physiological traits and the root proteome of a wild type (WT) rice plant with its JA biosynthesis mutant coleoptile photomorphogenesis 2 (cpm2), disrupted in the allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene, for insights into the role of JA under drought. The mutant had higher stomatal conductance, higher water use efficiency and higher shoot ABA levels under severe drought as compared to the WT. Notably, roots of cpm2 were better developed compared to the WT under both, control and drought stress conditions. Root proteome was analyzed using the Tandem Mass Tag strategy to better understand this difference at the molecular level. Expectedly, AOC was unique but notably highly abundant under drought in the WT. Identification of other differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) suggested increased energy metabolism (i.e., increased mobilization of resources) and reactive oxygen species scavenging in cpm2 under drought. Additionally, various proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell growth and cell wall synthesis were also more abundant in cpm2 roots. Proteome-guided transcript, metabolite, and histological analyses provided further insights into the favorable adaptations and responses, most likely orchestrated by the lack of JA, in the cpm2 roots. Our results in cpm2 are discussed in the light of JA crosstalk to other phytohormones. These results together pave the path for understanding the precise role of JA during drought stress in rice.
Project description:Understanding the interactions between drought and acute ozone (O<sub>3</sub>) stress in terms of signaling molecules and cell death would improve the predictions of plant responses to climate change. The aim was to investigate whether drought stress influences the responses of plants to acute episodes of O<sub>3</sub> exposure. In this study, the behavior of 84 Mediterranean evergreen <i>Quercus ilex</i> plants was evaluated in terms of cross-talk responses among signaling molecules. Half of the sample was subjected to drought (20% of the effective daily evapotranspiration, for 15 days) and was later exposed to an acute O<sub>3</sub> exposure (200 nL L<sup>-1</sup> for 5 h). First, our results indicate that in well-water conditions, O<sub>3</sub> induced a signaling pathway specific to O<sub>3</sub>-sensitive behavior. Second, different trends and consequently different roles of phytohormones and signaling molecules (ethylene, ET; abscisic acid, ABA; salycilic acid, SA and jasmonic acid, JA) were observed in relation to water stress and O<sub>3</sub>. A spatial and functional correlation between these signaling molecules was observed in modulating O<sub>3</sub>-induced responses in well-watered plants. In contrast, in drought-stressed plants, these compounds were not involved either in O<sub>3</sub>-induced signaling mechanisms or in leaf senescence (a response observed in water-stressed plants before the O<sub>3</sub>-exposure). Third, these differences were ascribable to the fact that in drought conditions, most defense processes induced by O<sub>3</sub> were compromised and/or altered. Our results highlight how <i>Q. ilex</i> plants suffering from water deprivation respond differently to an acute O<sub>3</sub> episode compared to well-watered plants, and suggest new effect to be considered in plant responses to environmental changes. This poses the serious question as to whether or not multiple high-magnitude O<sub>3</sub> events (as predicted) can change these cross-talk responses, thus opening it up possible further investigations.
Project description:Plant hormones play an important role in plant adaptation to abiotic stress, but hormonal responses of cool-season turfgrass species to drought stress are not well documented. This study was to investigate responses of hormones and photosynthesis to drought stress and examine if drought stress - induced hormone alteration is associated with stress tolerance in kentucky bluegrass (KBG, Poa pratensis L.). The grass was grown in a growth chamber for 6 weeks and then subjected to drought stress [40%-50% evapotranspiration (ET) replacement)] for 28 d. Drought stress caused cell membrane damage, resulting in decline in photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll content, and visual quality in KBG. Drought stressed grass had higher leaf abscisic acid (ABA), lower leaf trans-zeatin riboside (ZR), isopentenyl adenosine (iPA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but similar level of leaf gibberellin A4 (GA4) when compared to the control (well-watered). On average, drought stress treatment reduced leaf ZR by 59.1%, iPA by 50.4%, IAA by 26.7%, while increased ABA by 108.5% when compared to the control at the end of drought stress (28 d). The turf quality and photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with cytokinins and IAA, but negatively correlated with ABA and ABA/cytokinins (CK) ratio under drought stress. The results of this study suggest drought stress-induced injury to Kentucky bluegrass may be associated with hormonal alteration, and the plants with higher cytokinins and IAA and less ABA under drought stress may have better photosynthetic function and performance.
Project description:The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth and development, as well as responses to various stresses, such as salt and drought. The wheat TaFBA1 gene, which encodes an F-box protein, was previously identified in our laboratory by homologous cloning. We previously found that TaFBA1 expression was induced by ABA and drought stress. In this study, wild-type (WT), TaFBA1 over-expressing (OEs), TaFBA1 homologous gene mutants, and TaFBA1 recovery (Rs) Arabidopsis plants were used. We found that the germination rate, the cotyledon greening rate, the root length, and the photosynthetic performance of TaFBA1 OE plants were better than those of WT under drought and ABA conditions, but mutant plants showed the opposite trend, and overexpression of TaFBA1 in mutants can recover their phenotype. In addition, TaFBA1 was found to be a negative regulator of ABA-induced stoma movement; mRNA transcription of certain ABA signaling-related genes was lower in TaFBA1 OE plants than in WT plants following ABA treatment. Further, we found that TaFBA1 can interact with RCAR1 (an ABA receptor) and ABI5. BiFC assay showed that TaFBA1 may interact with RCAR1 in the plasma membrane. In addition, accumulation of ROS and MDA in TaFBA1 OE plants was lower than that in the WT plants after ABA and drought treatments. Based on these results, we suggest that TaFBA1-regulated ABA insensitivity may be dependent on regulating ABA-mediated gene expression through interacting with RCAR1 and ABI5. Increased antioxidant competence and decreased ROS accumulation may be an important mechanism that underlies improved drought tolerance in TaFBA1 OE plants.
Project description:Drought negatively affects plant growth and development, thereby leading to loss of crop productivity. Several plant E3 ubiquitin ligases act as positive or negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) and thus play important roles in the drought stress response. Here, we show that the C3HC4-type RING finger E3 ligase, CaDTR1, regulates the drought stress response via ABA-mediated signalling. CaDTR1 contains an amino-terminal RING finger motif and two carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic regions; the RING finger motif functions during attachment of ubiquitins to the target proteins, and the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic regions function during subcellular localisation. The expression of CaDTR1 was induced by ABA, drought, and NaCl treatments. CaDTR1 localised in the nucleus and displayed in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. CaDTR1-silenced pepper plants exhibited a drought-sensitive phenotype characterised by high levels of transpirational water loss. On the other hand, CaDTR1-overexpressing (OX) Arabidopsis plants exhibited an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype during the germinative and post-germinative growth stages. Moreover, in contrast to CaDTR1-silenced pepper plants, CaDTR1-OX plants exhibited a drought-tolerant phenotype characterised by low levels of transpirational water loss via increased stomatal closure and high leaf temperatures. Our data indicate that CaDTR1 functions as a positive regulator of the drought stress response via ABA-mediated signalling.
Project description:Drought is one of the most severe environmental stresses affecting plant growth and limiting crop production. Although many genes involved in adaptation to drought stress have been disclosed, the relevant molecular mechanisms are far from understood. This study describes an Arabidopsis gene, ASPG1 (ASPARTIC PROTEASE IN GUARD CELL 1), that may function in drought avoidance through abscisic acid (ABA) signalling in guard cells. Overexpression of the ASPG1 gene enhanced ABA sensitivity in guard cells and reduced water loss in ectopically overexpressing ASPG1 (ASPG1-OE) transgenic plants. In ASPG1-OE plants, some downstream targets in ABA and/or drought-signalling pathways were altered at various levels, suggesting the involvement of ASPG1 in ABA-dependent drought avoidance in Arabidopsis. By analysing the activities of several antioxidases including superoxide dismutase and catalase in ASPG1-OE plants, the existence was demonstrated of an effective detoxification system for drought avoidance in these plants. Analysis of ProASPG1-GUS lines showed a predominant guard cell expression pattern in various aerial tissues. Moreover, the protease activity of ASPG1 was characterized in vitro, and two aspartic acid sites, D180 and D379, were found to be key residues for ASPG1 aspartic protease activity in response to ABA. In summary, these findings suggest that functional ASPG1 may be involved in ABA-dependent responsiveness and that overexpression of the ASPG1 gene can confer drought avoidance in Arabidopsis.